The Fire Peoples-urns &metals. The R1b Conquest of Europe. Dacians-R1b/Z2103

Source of article – origins_and_history_of_haplogroup_r1b_y – by Maciamo Hay

The Conquest of “Old Europe” and Central Europe (4200-2500 BCE) The first forays of steppe people into the Balkans happened between 4200 BCE and 3900 BCE, when cattle herders equipped with horse-drawn wagons crossed the Dniester and Danube and apparently destroyed the towns of the Gumelnita, Varna and Karanovo VI cultures in Eastern Romania and Bulgaria. A climatic change resulting in colder winters during this exact period probably pushed steppe herders to seek milder pastures for their stock, while failed crops would have led to famine and internal disturbance within the Danubian and Balkanic communities. The ensuing Cernavodă culture (Copper Age, 4000-3200 BCE), Coțofeni/Usatovo culture (Copper to Bronze Age, 3500-2500 BCE), Ezero culture (Bronze Age, 3300-2700 BCE), in modern Romania, seems to have had a mixed population of steppe immigrants and people from the old tell settlements. These steppe immigrants were likely a mixture of both R1a and R1b lineages, with a probably higher percentage of R1a than later Yamna-era invasions.
The steppe invaders would have forced many Danubian farmers to migrate to the Cucuteni-Trypillian towns in the eastern Carpathians, causing a population boom and a north-eastward expansion until the Dnieper valley, bringing Y-haplogroups G2a, I2a1 – probably the dominant lineage of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, E1b1b, J and T in what is now central Ukraine. This precocious Indo-European advance westward was fairly limited, due to the absence of Bronze weapons and organised army at the time, and was indeed only possible thanks to climatic catastrophes which reduced the defences of the towns of Old Europe. The Carphatian, Danubian, and Balkanic cultures were too densely populated and technologically advanced to allow for a massive migration.
In comparison the forest-steppe R1a people successfully penetrated into the heart of Europe with little hindrance, due to the absence of developed agrarian societies around Poland and the Baltic. The Corded Ware (Battle Axe) culture (3200-1800 BCE) was a natural northern and western expansion of the Yamna culture, reaching as far west as Germany and as far north as Sweden and Norway. DNA analysis from the Corded Ware confirmed the presence of R1a and R1b in Poland c. 2700 BCE and R1a central Germany around 2600 BCE. The Corded Ware tribes expanded from the northern fringe of the Yamna culture where R1a lineages were prevalent over R1b ones.
r1b-treeThe expansion of R1b people into Old Europe was slower, but proved inevitable. In 2800 BCE, by the time the Corded Ware had already reached Scandinavia, the Bronze Age R1b cultures had barely moved into the Pannonian steppe. They established major settlements in the Great Hungarian Plain, the most similar habitat to their ancestral Pontic Steppes. Around 2500 BCE, the western branch of Indo-European R1b were poised for their next major expansion into modern Germany and Western Europe. By that time, the R1b immigrants had blended to a great extent with the indigenous Mesolithic and Neolithic populations of the Danubian basin, where they had now lived for 1,700 years.
The strongly partriarchal Indo-European elite remained almost exclusively R1b on the paternal side, but absorbed a high proportion of non-Indo-European maternal lineages. Hybridised, the new Proto-Indo-European R1b people would have lost most of their remaining Proto-Europoid or Mongolid features inherited from their Caspian origins (which were still clearly visible in numerous individuals from the Yamna period). Their light hair, eye and skin pigmentation, once interbred with the darker inhabitants of Old Europe, became more like that of modern Southern Europeans. The R1a people of the Corded Ware culture would come across far less populous societies in Northern Europe, mostly descended from the lighter Mesolithic population (haplogroup I1 and I2), and therefore retain more of their original pigmentation (although facial traits evolved considerably in Scandinavia, where the I1 inhabitants were strongly dolicocephalic and long-faced, as opposed to the brachycephalic and broad-faced steppe people).
Eupedia – the R1b Conquest of Western Europe (2500-1200 BCE)

or nearly two millennia, starting from circa 4200 BCE, steppe people limited their conquest to the rich Chalcolithic civilisations of the Carpathians and the Balkans. These societies possessed the world’s largest towns, notably the tell settlements of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture. Nothing incited the R1b conquerors to move further into Western Europe at such an early stage, because most of the land north and west of the Alps was still sparsely populated woodland. The Neolithic did not reach the British Isles and Scandinavia before circa 4000 BCE. Even northern France and most of the Alpine region had been farming or herding for less than a millennium and were still quite primitive compared to Southeast Europe and the Middle East. North-west Europe remained a tribal society of hunter-gatherers practising only limited agriculture for centuries after the conquest of the Balkans by the Indo-Europeans. Why would our R1b “conquistadors” leave the comfort of the wealthy and populous Danubian civilisations for the harsh living conditions that lie beyond ? Bronze Age people coveted tin, copper, and gold, of which the Balkans had plenty, but that no one had yet discovered in Western Europe.r1bR1b-L51 is thought to have arrived in Central Europe (Hungary, Austria, Bohemia) around 2500 BCE, approximately two millennia after the shift to the Neolithic in these regions. Agrarian towns had started to develop. Gold and copper had begun to be mined. The prospects of a conquest were now far more appealing. The archeological and genetic evidence (distribution of R1b subclades) point at several consecutive waves towards eastern and central Germany between 2800 BCE and 2300 BCE. The Unetice culture was probably the first culture in which R1b-L11 lineages played a major role. It is interesting to note that the Unetice period happen to correspond to the end of the Maykop (2500 BCE) and Kemi Oba (2200 BCE) cultures on the northern shores of the Black Sea, and their replacement by cultures descended from the northern steppes. It can therefore be envisaged that the (mostly) R1b population from the northern half of the Black Sea migrated westward due to pressure from other Indo-European people (R1a) from the north, for example that of the burgeoning Proto-Indo-Iranian branch, linked to the contemporary Poltavka and Abashevo cultures.
It is doubtful that the Bell Beaker culture (2800-1900 BCE) in Western Europe was already Indo-European because its attributes are in perfect continuity with the native Megalithic cultures. The Beaker phenomenon started during the Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic in Portugal and propagated to the north-east towards Germany. During the same period Bronze Age steppe cultures spread from Germany in the opposite direction towards Iberia, France and Britain, progressively bringing R1b lineages into the Bell Beaker territory. Ancient DNA tests conducted by Lee et al. (2012), Haak et al. (2015) and Allentoft et al. (2015)have all confirmed the presence of R1b-L51 (and deeper subclades such as P312 and U152) in Germany from the Bell Beaker period onwards, but none in earlier cultures. German Bell Beaker R1b samples only had about 50% of Yamna autosomal DNA and often possessed Neolithic non-Steppe mtDNA, which confirms that R1b invaders took local wives as they advanced westward.early_middle_bronze_europeDNA samples from the Unetice culture (2300-1600 BCE) in Germany, which emerged less than two centuries after the apperance of the first R1b individuals in the late Bell Beaker Germany, had a slightly higher percentage of Yamna ancestry (60~65%) and of Yamna-related mtDNA lineages, which indicates a migration of both steppe men and women. That would explain why archeological artefacts from the Unetice culture are clearly Yamna-related (i.e. Indo-European), as they abruptly introduced new technologies and a radically different lifestyle, while the Bell Beaker culture was in direct continuity with previous Neolithic or Chalcolithic cultures. R1b men may simply have conquered the Bell Beaker people and overthrown the local rulers without obliterating the old culture due to their limited numbers. Taking the analogy of the Germanic migrations in the Late Antiquity, the R1b invasion of the Bell Beaker period was more alike to that of the Goths, Burgunds and Vandals, who all migrated in small numbers, created new kingdoms within the Roman empire, but adopted Latin language and Roman culture. In contrast, the Corded Ware and Unetice culture involved large-scale migrations of steppe people, who imposed their Indo-European language and culture and conquered people, just like the Anglo-Saxons or the Bavarians did in the 5th century. The Únětice culture practiced skeletal inhumations, however occasionally cremation was also practised. A typical Úněticean cemetery was situated near a settlement, usually on a hill or acclivity and in the vicinity of a creek or river. The distance between the cemetery and the adjacent settlement very rarely exceeds a kilometer. Cemeteries were usually spatially organized, with symmetrical rows or alleys.[27] Burials of the Únětice culture are orientated according to stars and the relative position of the sun on the horizon during the year, which indicate possibly quite advanced prehistoric astronomical observations. One of the most prominent characteristic is the position of the body in grave pit. Deceased were buried always in north-south alignment, with head south facing east. The body lied in a grave usually in slightly contracted position. Exceptions from this rule are sporadic. In classic phase (approx. 1850-1750 BC), Úněticean burial rite displays strong uniformity, regardless of the gender or age of the deceased. Men and women were buried in the same N-S position.
The cultures that succeeded to Unetice in Central Europe, chronologically the Tumulus culture (1600-1200 BCE), Urnfield culture (1300-1200 BCE) and Hallstatt culture (1200-750 BCE) cultures remained typically Indo-European. The Hallstatt culture, centered around the Alps, is considered the first classical Celtic culture in Europe. It quickly expanded to France, Britain, Iberia, northern Italy and the Danube valley, probably spreading for the first time Celtic languages, although not bronze technology nor R1b lineages, which had both already spread over much of western Europe during the Bell Beaker period.
As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds – tumuli or kurgans! – R1A.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BCE – 750 BCE) name comes from the custom of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields. The Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and was succeeded by the Hallstatt culture.[1] Linguistic evidence and continuity with the following Hallstatt culture suggests that the people of this area spoke an early form of Celtic, perhaps originally proto-Celtic. R1B!
The neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of modern-day northeastern Romania and Ukraine were also practicing cremation rituals as early as approximately 5,500 BCE!
One important archeological argument in favour of the replacement of Neolithic cultures by Indo-European culture in the Bronze Age comes from pottery styles. The sudden appearance of bronze technology in Western Europe coincides with ceramics suddenly becoming more simple and less decorated, just like in the Pontic steppes. Until then, pottery had constantly evolved towards greater complexity and details for over 3,000 years. Besides pottery, archeology provides ample evidence that the early Bronze Age in Central and Western Europe coincides with a radical shift in food production. Agriculture experiences an abrupt reduction in exchange for an increased emphasis on domesticates. This is also a period when horses become more common and cow milk is being consumed regularly. The oeverall change mimicks the steppe way of life almost perfectly. Even after the introduction of agriculture around 5200 BCE, the Bug-Dniester culture and later steppe cultures were characterized by an economy dominated by herding, with only limited farming. This pattern expands into Europe exactly at the same time as bronze working. Religious beliefs and arts undergo a complete reversal in Bronze Age Europe. Neolithic societies in the Near East and Europe had always worshipped female figurines as a form of fertility cult. As bronze technology spreads from the Danube valley to Western Europe, symbols of fertility and fecundity progressively disappear and are replaced by scultures of domesticated animals.
urnAnother clue that Indo-European steppe people came in great number to Central and Western Europe is to be found in burial practices. Neolithic Europeans either cremated their dead (e.g. Cucuteni-Tripolye culture) or buried them in collective graves (this was the case of Megalithic cultures). In the steppe, each person was buried individually, and high-ranking graves were placed in a funeral chamber and topped by a circular mound. The body was typically accompanied by weapons (maces, axes, daggers), horse bones, and a dismantled wagon (or later chariot). These characteristic burial mounds are known as kurgans in the Pontic steppe. Men were given more sumptuous tombs than women, even among children, and differences in hierarchy are obvious between burials. The Indo-Europeans had a strongly hierarchical and patrilinear society, as opposed to the more egalitarian and matrilinear cultures of Old Europe. The proliferation of status-conscious male-dominant kurgans (or tumulus) in Central Europe during the Bronze Age is a clear sign that the ruling elite had now become Indo-European. The practice also spread to central Asia and southern Siberia, two regions where R1a and R1b lineages are found nowadays, just like in Central Europe. The adoption of some elements of a foreign culture tends to happen when one civilization overawes the adjacent cultures by its superiority. This process is called ‘acculturation’. However there is nothing that indicates that the steppe culture was so culturally superior as to motivate a whole continent, even Atlantic cultures over 2000 km away from the Pontic steppes, to abadndon so many fundamental symbols of their own ancestral culture, and even their own language. In fact, Old Europe was far more refined in its pottery and jewellery than the rough steppe people. The Indo-European superiority was not cultural but military, thanks to horses, bronze weapons and an ethic code valuing individual heroic feats in war (these ethic values are known from the old IE texts, like the Rig Veda, Avesta, or the Mycenaean and Hittite literature).
Metal-mining and stockbreeding explain R1b dominance in Atlantic fringe.  First I realised that haplogroup R1b originated somewhere between Central Asia and the Middle East, then moved through the Pontic steppe where it became associated with Indo-European culture, before pushing its way through the Danube valley and Western Europe. It all made sense. One thing kept bugging me with this nice theory. How did R1b lineages come to replace most of the older lineages in Western Europe ? I tried to explain that with a series of factors (polygamy, status, war…), but somehow that still didn’t explain why R1b reached tremendous frequencies in places like Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany or the Basque country, and not elsewhere. I think I have come up with a reasonable answer to this mystery.
r1b-z2103-treeI was looking at a map of metal-rich zones in Europe, and more specifically where copper, tin, silver and gold mines had been established in the Copper and Bronze Age. The richest regions were the Anatolia, North Caucasus, the Carpathians (Romania), the Balkans (especially central Bulgaria), the Alps, and the Atlantic fringe of Europe ( Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany). This was exactly the migration route I had established a year ago for R1b1b2. R1b people were evidently metal workers.
The second element that dawned on me is that the Atlantic fringe from Galicia to the Scottish Highlands, must have been poor agricultural land for early farmers. This may be why farming spread later to these regions, and that aboriginal Megalithic cultures thrived there more than anywhere else. What does that have to do with R1b ? The Proto-Italo-Celts that brought R1b lineages to Western Europe from the North Caucasus and Pontic steppes had an economy relying on stockbreeding and herding more than farming. The European Bronze Age is characterised by the sharp diminution in agriculture and an increase in domesticates. The steppe culture was replacing the Neolithic lifestyle.
Where else could this have the most dramatic effect on the population structure than in the Atlantic fringe, where the Neolithic/Chalcolithic population was sparser than elsewhere due to the late adoption of agriculture and low yield of the farms ? The arrival of the metal-hungry, horse-riding and warlike Indo-Europeans with their bronze swords and axes was a death sentence to the locals. The green pastures of the Atlantic were a boon for the flocks of cattle and herds of sheep of the Indo-Europeans. It was like a milder-climate version of the steppes with the added bonus of being rich in copper and tin, the two components of bronze.r1b-ydnaTo verify my hypothesis, I checked the mtDNA frequencies around Europe to see which region had the most maternal lineages typically associated with the Pontic-Caspian steppes, Caucasus and northern Anatolia. Compared with other Western European countries, Ireland has more steppe/Indo-European mtDNA than France/Italy (5.26%), Iberia (5.4%), Scandinavia (6.52%) or England/Wales (7.69%), and only slightly less than Germany (8.74%) and the Alps (Austria/Switzerland, 9.04%). This could mean that a major population replacement happened in Ireland, not just for paternal linages but also maternal ones. As expected by the pattern of Danubian migration, South Germany has much more Pontic/Caucasian-specific mtDNA (12% against 4.6%). Austria has 9.4%, Switzerland 8.4% and Alpine Italy 7.9%. The number of IE mtDNA diminishes as one moves away from the Danube.  In Spain, Galicians (12.3%), Catalonians (26.6% ! => all U4 and W) stand out remarkably against Central Spaniards (4.4%), Southern Spaniards (6.5%) and Portuguese (7.5%). Cantabrians (10.3%) also have a higher than average number of Pontic/Caucasian mt-haplogroups. Catalonia has the highest percebtage of R1b in Spain along with the Basque country. The Basques, on the other hand, have 0% of I/U2/U3/U4/W according to Helgason and 1.8% in Maca-Meyer’s study. The Basque country is the only high R1b region that lacks its mtDNA equivalents. The best explanation is that the Basque was not settled by Indo-Europeans, but that its male rulers (and aristocracy) became Indo-European and married local princesses/women. The founder effect would have amplified quickly with time if the R1b royalty/nobility produced a lot of sons (gender bias) or took a lot of local wives (polygamy). This is surely why the Basques did not lose their pre-IE language and identity. In any case, the weighed average for Y-DNA and mtDNA is lower among the Basques than for most of Western Europeans.
Overall, we see that the regions of Western and Central Europe with the highest frequencies of Pontic-Caspian/Caucasian mtDNA are found around the Alps (12% peak in southern Germany), in Catalonia (Pyrenees region) and in the metal-rich, rocky, pasture lands unsuitable for primitive agriculture of Ireland, Cornwall, Cantabria and Galicia. It is probably not a coincidence that Ireland, Cornwall or Galicia have retained a stronger Celtic identity than other places in Europe.
Lactose tolerance in Europe seems to be another piece of evidence that supports the theory of MaciamoThis report mentions that the T-13910 lactase persistence allele increases in frequency as one moves from SE to NW in Europe. Its authors found that lactase persistence also increases in frequency from SE to NW in the British Isles, interestingly enough, i.e., in the direction of increasing R1b1b2 frequency. That same report (the second one) mentions the authors’ belief that the T-13910 lactase peristence allele originated somewhere between the Caucasus and the Urals.
Maciamo again: I have revised my principal hypothesis regarding the propagation of haplogroup G2a3. Its presence in mountainous areas of Greece, Italy and southern France originally led me to think that it was linked to the diffusion of goat and sheep herding in the Neolithic via the Cardium Pottery culture. However, three novel elements made me change my mind (or rather think of an additional migration). Firstly, the most common subclade of G2a in Europe is G2a3b1, and this clade is estimated to be only approx. 4500 years old. It is too young for a Neolithic dispersal across Europe. Secondly, this G2a3b1 has been found in India alongside R1b1b2. If my theory that the Proto-Indo-European speakers originated near the Caucasus is correct, then we are almost bound to find some G2a in places settled by R1b1b. The modern Ossetians and Georgians have very high levels of both haplogroups. I think that the two originally represented different ethnic and linguistic groups (Indo-European vs Caucasian family), but their proximity would have led to some blending of population in the Caucasus region over time. Thirdly, I realised that G2a3 was also high in northern Portugal, Galicia, Cantabria, Wales, the Alps and Bohemia, and it occurred to me that it was in the same copper- and tin-rich regions that the Indo-European R1b1b2 would have favoured. Brittany, Cornwall and Ireland do not have much G2a3 though, but extremely high levels of R1b1b2 to make up for it. G2a3 would therefore represent Indo-Europeanised Caucasian people who migrated with R1b1b2 during the Bronze Age. It is possible that G2a3 percentage in western and central Europe remained fairly stable over time, while an originally small ruling elite of R1b1b2 grew exponentially due to their higher birth rate and cultural Indo-European predisposition of favouring of sons.
Further evidence for the settlement patterns of the Indo-European in western Europe can inferred from the better documented and more archaeologically explicit Indo-Iranian branch in Central Asia. The eastern expansion of the Indo-Europeans started with the occupation of the eastern Ural mountains, as far as the Tobol and Ishim valleys, all copper-rich regions. The newly acquired resources of the Proto-Indo-Iranians of the Sintashta culture boosted the bronze production, which combined with the newly invented war chariot permitted a full-scale invasion of Central Asia. The Indo-Iranians aimed for the metal-rich regions, such as the valleys of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya in Bactria, the Tian Shan and the Altai mountains. All are hotspots of R1a (with some R1b) nowadays. The mining region of Bactria was a base for the subsequent conquest of the Indian subcontinent and Persia. There is no reason to believe that the western branch of the Indo-Europeans should have behaved in a radically different way in their settling of Europe. Copper and tin were vital for IE Bronze-age society. Indo-European rulers from the Maykop and Yamna cultures were also notoriously avid of gold and silver, as attested by objects and jewellery found in Kurgan graves.late_bronze_age_europeThe Atlantic Celtic branch (L21) The Proto-Italo-Celto-Germanic R1b people had reached in what is now Germany by 2500 BCE. By 2300 BCE they had arrived in large numbers and founded the Unetice culture. Judging from the propagation of bronze working to Western Europe, those first Indo-Europeans reached France and the Low Countries by 2200 BCE, Britain by 2100 BCE and Ireland by 2000 BCE, and Iberia by 1800 BCE. This first wave of R1b presumably carried R1b-L21 lineages in great number (perhaps because of a founder effect), as these are found everywhere in western, northern and Central Europe. The early split of L21 from the main Proto-Celtic branch around Germany would explain why the Q-Celtic languages (Goidelic and Hispano-Celtic) diverged so much from the P-Celtic branch (La Tène, Gaulish, Brythonic), which appears to have expanded from the later Urnfield and Hallstat cultures.
The Italo-Celtic branch (S28/U152) Starting circa 1300 BCE, a new Bronze Age culture flourished around the Alps thanks to the abundance of metal in the region, and laid the foundation for the classical Celtic culture. It was actually the succession of three closely linked culture: the Urnfield culture, which would evolve into the Hallstatt culture (from 1200 BCE) and eventually into the La Tène culture (from 450 BCE). After the Unetice expansion to Western Europe between 2300 and 1800 BCE, the Urnfield/Hallstatt/La Tène period represents the second major R1b expansion that took place from Central Europe, pushing west to the Atlantic, north to Scandinavia, east to the Danubian valley, and eventually as far away as Greece, Anatolia, Ukraine and Russia, perhaps even until the Tarim basin in north-west China (=> see Tarim mummies.
The expansion of the Urnfield/Hallstatt culture to Italy is evident in the form of the Villanovan culture (c. 1100-700 BCE), which shared striking resemblances with the Urnfield/Hallstatt sites of Bavaria and Upper Austria. The Villanova culture marks a clean break with the previous Terramare culture. Although both cultures practised cremation, whereas Terramare people placed cremated remains in communal ossuaries like their Neolithic ancestors from the Near East, Villanovans used distinctive Urnfield-style double-cone shaped funerary urns, and elite graves containing jewellery, bronze armour and horse harness fittings were separated from ordinary graves, showing for the first time the development of a highly hierarchical society, so characteristic of Indo-European cultures. Quintessential Indo-European decorations, such as swastikas, also make their appearance. Originally a Bronze-age culture, the Villanova culture introduced iron working to the Italian peninsula around the same time as it appeared in the Hallstatt culture, further reinforcing the link between the two cultures. In all likelihood, the propagation of the Villanova culture represents the Italic colonisation of the Italian peninsula. The highest proportion of R1b-S28 is found precisely where the Villanovans were the more strongly established, around modern Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna.
haplogroup-r1b-z2103The E Europe/W Asia branch. When R1b crossed the Caucasus in the Late Neolithic, it split into two main groups. The western one (L51) would settle the eastern and northern of the Black Sea. The eastern one (Z2103 + M73) migrated to the Don-Volga region, where horses were domesticated circa 4600 BCE. R1b probably mixed with indigenous R1a people and founded the Repin culture (3700-3300 BCE) a bit before the Yamna culture came into existence in the western Pontic Steppe. R1b would then have migrated with horses along the Great Eurasian Steppe until the Altai mountains in East-Central Asia, where they established the Afanasevo culture (c. 3600-2400 BCE). Afanasevo people might be the precursors of the Tocharian branch of Indo-European languages alongside haplogroup R1a (=> see Tarim mummies).
R1b people who stayed in the Volga-Ural region were probably the initiators of the Poltavka culture (2700-2100 BCE), then became integrated into the R1a-dominant Sintashta-Petrovka culture (2100-1750 BCE) linked to the Indo-Aryan conquest of Central and South Asia (=> see R1a for more details).
The Hittites (c. 2000-1178 BCE) were the first Indo-Europeans to defy (and defeat) the mighty Mesopotamian and Egyptian empires. There are two hypotheses regarding the origins of the Hittites. The first is that they came from the eastern Balkans and invaded Anatolia by crossing the Bosphorus. That would mean that they belonged either to the L23* or the Z2103 subclade. The other plausible scenario is that they were an offshoot of the late Maykop culture, and that they crossed the Caucasus to conquer the Hattian kingdom (perhaps after being displaced from the North Caucasus by the R1a people of the Catacomb culture). In that case the Hittites might have belonged to the R1b-M269* or the R1b-M73 subclade. The first hypothesis has the advantage of having a single nucleus, the Balkans, as the post-Yamna expansion of all Indo-European R1b. The Maykop hypothesis, on the other hand, would explain why the Anatolian branch of IE languages (Hittite, Luwian, Lydian, Palaic) is so archaic compared to other Indo-European languages, which would have originated in Yamna rather than Maykop.
There is substantial archaeological and linguistic evidence that Troy was an Indo-European city associated with the steppe culture and haplogroup R1b. The Trojans were Luwian speakers related to the Hittites (hence Indo-European), with attested cultural ties to the culture of the Pontic-Caspian steppe. The first city of Troy dates back to 3000 BCE, right in the middle of the Maykop period. Troy might have been founded by Maykop people as a colony securing the trade routes between the Black Sea and the Aegean. The founding of Troy happens to coincide exactly with the time the first galleys were made. Considering the early foundation of Troy, the most likely of the two Indo-European paternal haplogroups would be R1b-M269 or L23.
The Phrygians and the Proto-Armenians are two other Indo-European tribes stemming from the Balkans. Both appear to have migrated to Anatolia around 1200 BCE, during the ‘great upheavals’ of the Eastern Mediterranean (see below). The Phrygians (or Bryges) founded a kingdom (1200-700 BCE) in west central Anatolia, taking over most of the crumbling Hittite Empire. The Armenians crossed all Anatolia until Lake Van and settled in the Armenian Highlands. Nowadays 30% of Armenian belong to haplogroup R1b, the vast majority to the L23 subclade (=> see The Indo-European migrations to Armenia).
Most of the R1b found in Greece today is of the Balkanic Z2103 variety. There is also a minority of Proto-Celtic S116/P312 and of Italic/Alpine Celtic S28/U152. L23 could have descended from Albania or Macedonia during the Dorian invasion (see below), thought to have happened in the 12th century BCE. Their language appear to have been close enough to Mycenaean Greek to be mutually intelligible and easy for locals to adopt. The Mycenaeans might have brought some R1b (M269 or L23) to Greece, but their origins can be traced back through archaeology to the Catacomb culture and the Seima-Turbino phenomenon of the northern forest-steppe, which would make them primarily an R1a1a tribe. Greek and Anatolian S116 and some S28 lineages could be attributed to the La Tène Celtic invasions of the 3rd century BCE. The Romans also certainly brought S28 lineages (=> see Genetics of the Italian people), and probably also the Venetians later on, notably on the islands. Older clades of R1b, such as P25 and V88, are only a small minority and would have come along E1b1b, G2a and J2 from the Middle East.

Map-showing-ancient-Thracian-territory.jpgNorth of the Danube, Dacians occupied a larger territory than Ptolemaic Dacia,stretching between Bohemia in the west and the Dniepercataracts in the east, and up to the Pripyat, Vistula, and Oder rivers in the north and northwest. In BC 53, Julius Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was on the eastern border of the Hercynian forest.[64] According to Strabo’s Geographica, written around AD 20,[66] the Getes (Geto-Dacians) bordered the Suevi who lived in the Hercynian Forest, which is somewhere in the vicinity of the river Duria, the present-day Vah (Waag).[67] Dacians lived on both sides of the Danube.[68] [69] According to Strabo, Moesians also lived on both sides of the Danube.[35] According to Agrippa,[70] Dacia was limited by the Baltic Ocean in the North and by the Vistula in the West.[71] The names of the people and settlements confirm Dacia’s borders as described by Agrippa.[70][72] Dacian people also lived south of the Danube.[70] 

The Únětice culture practiced skeletal inhumations, however occasionally cremation was also practised. Wietenberg and Otomani were the first cultures to develop bronze technology in Transylvania. While Otomani, Unetice and all the other cultures around still had inhumation, Wietenberg had cremation and urns. When all the other cultures had only stone tools, Wietenberg had a well develope bronze and gold technology, followed by Otomani culture. Cremation could come from Cucuteni who used to burn everything. The neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of modern-day northeastern Romania and Ukraine were practicing cremation rituals as early as approximately 5,500 BC. The shift to cremation rather than interment around 1300 BC, gave archaeologists a name for the burgeoning Urnfield culture. The typical Urnfield burial used a urn to contain the ashes of the desceased, capped by an upturned bowl, set into a pit. The usage had spread over much of Europe by 1000 BC. Any type of cremation was uncommon earlier over most of Europe except the Carpathian Basin, where it appears among the Makó and Bell Beaker groups as early as c. 2700 to 2400 BC. So this region has often been considered the starting point for the Urnfield tradition.
In Transylvania, the Celts shifted from inhumation to cremation, either through natural progression or because of Dacian influence.[5] Almost without exception, the necropoleis so far studied are bi-ritual, although cremation appears to be more prevalent than inhumation.[14] The Celts in Dacia certainly cremated their dead from the second La Tène period onwards. Archaeological sites of the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC reveal a pattern of co-existence and fusion between the bearers of La Tène culture and the indigenous Dacians.
The E Europe/W Asia branch R1b-Z2103 seems to be more important than the later La Tene R1b influence, for the formation of Dacians. The Dacians probably had an I2 old continuity that absorbed the R1a waves (thracian & scythian), the first R1b-Z2103 than the much later R1b La Tene wave. The cremation could be a tradition going back to the millenia old Burned House Horizon, while the metal working go back to Vinca/Cucuteni cultures but it is strongly relatied to R1b people. bhh

Strabo describes the Getae and Dacians as distinct but cognate tribes, but also states that they spoke the same language.[17] This distinction refers to the regions they occupied.[17] Strabo and Pliny the Elder also state that Getae and Dacians spoke the same language.[18] According to Strabo’s Geographica, the original name of the Dacians was ΔάοιDaoi“.The ethnographic name Daci is found under various forms within ancient sources. Greeks used the forms ΔάκοιDakoi” (Strabo, Dio Cassius, and Dioscorides). Latins used the forms Davus, Dacus, and a derived form Dacisci (Vopiscus and inscriptions). There are similarities between the ethnonyms of the Dacians and those of Dahae (Greek Δάσαι Δάοι, Δάαι, Δαι, Δάσαι Dáoi, Dáai, Dai, Dasai; Latin Dahae, Daci), an Indo-European people located east of the Caspian Sea, until the 1st millennium BCE. Scholars have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since ancient times.  Opinions on the origins of the name Daci are divided. Some scholars consider it to originate in the Indo-European *dha-k-, with the stem *dhe– “to put, to place”, while others think that the name Daci originates in *daca — “knife, dagger” or in a word similar to daos, meaning “wolf” in the related language of the Phrygians.  Another hypothesis is that “Getae” and “Daci” are Iranian names of two Iranian-speaking Scythian groups that had been assimilated into the larger Thracian-speaking population of the later “Dacia”. A possible connection with the Phrygian daos, meaning “wolf” was suggested by Decev in 1957.[43] The Phrygian meaning is supported by Hesychius‘s notes.[44][45] This hypothesis has had a large diffusion due to historian Mircea Eliade.[43] In later times, some Roman auxiliaries recruited from the Dacian area were referred to as Phrygi. Moreover, a endonym linked to wolves has been demonstrated or proposed for other ancient Indo-European tribes, including the Luvians, Lycians, Lucanians, Hyrcanians, and Dahae.
Mircea Eliade attempted, in his book From Zalmoxis to Genghis Khan, to give a mythological foundation to an alleged special relation between Dacians and the wolves.
lupul-dacicIt is generally proposed that a proto-Dacian or proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of Proto-Indo-European expansion in the Early Bronze Age (3,300–3,000 BC)[60] when the latter, around 1500 BC, conquered the indigenous peoples.[61] The indigenous people were Danubian farmers, and the invading people of the BC 3rd millennium were Kurgan warrior-herders from the Ukrainian and Russian steppes.[62] Indo-Europeanization was complete by the beginning of the Bronze Age. The people of that time are best described as proto-Thracians, which later developed in the Iron Age into Danubian-Carpathian Geto-Dacians as well as Thracians of the eastern Balkan Peninsula.[63] Between BC 15th–12th century, the Dacian-Getae culture was influenced by the Bronze Age Tumulus-Urnfield warriors who were on their way through the Balkans to Anatolia.[64] When the La Tène Celts arrived in BC 4th century, the Dacians were under the influence of the Scythians.[64]

The ancient Egyptians developed an intricate transmigration of soul theology, which prohibited cremation. This was also widely adopted used by Semitic peoples. The Babylonians, according to Herodotus, embalmed their dead. Early Persians practiced cremation, but this became prohibited during the Zoroastrian Period. Phoenicians practiced both cremation and burial. From the Cycladic civilisation in 3000 BCE until the Sub-Mycenaean era in 1200–1100 BCE, Greeks practiced inhumation.
Maykop cultare practised inhumation in a pit, sometimes stone-lined, topped with a kurgan (or tumulus). Stone cairns replace kurgans in later interments. The Maykop kurgansn were extremely rich in gold and silver artifacts; unusual for the time.
David Anthony’s “The Horse, the Wheel and Language” (THWL). One of the first references to cremation in the THWL book is to the Cotsofeni culture ~ 3500 BCE as mountain refuges in western Romania escaping from conflicts with IE tribes. There is not much detail except that they buried their ashes in flat graves. One of the early references to IE tribes to take up cremation along with inhumation burial is the ‘Middle Dneiper‘ culture 2800-2600 BCE. The Sintashta culture had rituals that closely resembled the descriptions in Rig Veda, and hence probably the origins of the later Indo-Iranian (II) and the Indo-Aryan (IA) sub-branches. But the funeral practices here still continued to be inhumation, being more elaborate with Sintashta chiefs who were buried with Horses, chariots, weapons and multiple animal sacrifices.
With the IE tribes moving towards the north-eastern region, it seems a shift occurred around the time of the Andronovo horizon (which proceeded the Sintashta culture) where both inhumation and cremation were practiced in two sub-cultures identified by their pottery styles – Alkakul (inhumation) and Federovo (cremation)Fedorovo (1500–1300 BCE) in southern Siberia (earliest evidence of cremation and fire cult[6]), probably the ashes were collected into an urn and buried. While cremation became ubiquitous in Hinduism, it came to be disavowed in Zoroastrianism. However, even earlier evidences of vedic fire altars have been found at the Indus Valley sites of Kalibangan and Lothal, giving rise to speculations towards earlier assumed the geographical location of the early Indo-Iranians.

arhexp3_arheoinvestIn the archaeology of Neolithic Europe, the burned house horizon is the geographical extent of the phenomenon of intentionally burned settlements. This was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what is now Southeastern and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). A notable representative of this tradition is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which was centered on the burned-house horizon both geographically and temporally.

  • The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture had the largest settlements in history up to their time.[15]
  • There is evidence that every single settlement in this culture probably practiced house burning.[3]
  • This culture practiced house burning for a longer period of time (1600 years), and for a later date (up to 3200 BC), than any of the other cultures.[1]:p.102
  • The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was considered by some scholars to be the largest and most influential of the Neolithic cultures of eastern Europe during the transition to the Eneolithic period.[16] :p.196
Periodization table of Neolithic cultures that practiced house burning
Name of Culture Location of culture Duration of Practice
Criş culture Bulgaria, Moldavia, Serbia, Wallachia 5900 to 4750 BC
Starčevo culture northwest Bulgaria, Kosovo, Serbia, Drina Valley in Southwest Srpska Republic, southern Vojvodina, 5750 to 5250 BC
Dudeşti culture southeast Muntenia 5500 to 5250 BC
Vinča culture Serbia, Transylvania 5500 to 4000 BC
Szakálhát group southern Hungary, Vojvodina, northern Transylvania 5260 to 4880 BC
Boian culture northern Bulgaria, Muntenia, southeast Transylvania 5250 to 4400 BC
Tisza culture Hungary, Moldavia, Slovakia, Transylvania, western Ukraine, Vojvodina 4880 to 4400 BC
Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture eastern Wallachia, northern Dobruja 4400 to 3800 BC
Bubanj-Sălcuţa-Krivodol group northwestern Bulgaria, Oltenia, southern Serbia 4300 to 3800 BC.
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture Moldavia, Transylvania, Western Ukraine to Dnieper River 4800 to 3200 BC.

During the Neolithic Period the dead were buried inside their houses -beneath the floor- or very close to them, at the limits of the settlements they had lived in. Burials were as a rule isolated, while cemeteries have rarely been encountered.
1. Primary internment of the dead in simple pits (simple inhumations), usually in a contracted but also crouched position
2. Cremation of the dead, partial (Early Neolithic) or complete (Late Neolithic), accompanied by vases, or cremations in which the cremated were in several cases placed in vases, the first known in Greece and some of the oldest in Europe.
3. Collecting the bones (skull, thighs, ribs) of the dead individual and burying these beneath the floors of the house (Prodromos in Karditsa) or in a specific part of a cave (a kind of ossuary in Alepotrypa in Diros).

During the Neolithic Period the dead were buried inside their houses -beneath the floor- or very close to them, at the limits of the settlements they had lived in. There is evidence of three types of burial customs from excavations carried out in Greece:
1. Primary internment of the dead in simple pits (simple inhumations), usually in a contracted but also crouched position.
2. Cremation of the dead, partial (Early Neolithic) or complete (Late Neolithic), accompanied by vases, or cremations in which the cremated were in several cases placed in vases, the first known in Greece and some of the oldest in Europe.
3. Collecting the bones (skull, thighs, ribs) of the dead individual and burying these beneath the floors of the house.
In mainland Europe a number of later Mesolithic cemeteries have been identified. At Vedbaek, Denmark (c.6000 years ago).Padina area, Yugoslavia. Nine sites along the Danube have produced 350 bodies. These were Cro-Magnon people with long skulls, large brow ridges and large jaws, and were heavily muscled skeletons. Zvejnieka, Lithuania (7500-5000 years ago) produced c.60 graves of Mesolithic date. In the Neolithic burial practices are characterized by collective burial in large, highly visible monuments, and by ritual practices resulting in the scattering of human bones in non-funerary contexts.In the early Bronze Age (c.4700-3700 years ago) a new form of burial rite, the so-called Beaker burials, began to appear around 4700 years ago. These are crouched inhumations accompanied by a particular pottery form known as a beaker and covered by a small round earthen mound. The people buried in this way generally have broad, rounded skulls in comparison with the Neolithic burials, and they had previously been thought of as invaders.

INHUMATION VERSUS CREMATION IN TRANSYLVANIAN NEOLITHIC AND ENEOLITHIC – MIHAI GLIGOR, SANDA BĂCUEȚ CRIȘAN In the past decades, excavations in Europe have provided irrefutable evidence of cremation rite practices, even from the Mesolithic. In any case, the use of fire as a purifying element is a pattern that often comes across in mortuary practices. Mesolithic cremations from Iron Gates Vlasac (Serbia) are an important part of secondary mortuary rites.In Hungary, at Aszód (Lengyel culture) mostly inhumation graves were investigated, but also cremation graves83. Two other finds are from Öcsöd-Kovácshalom84 (Tisza culture). Of the 436 graves, 72 burials (16.5% of them) from the Copper-Age cemetery at Budakalász were cremation burials85 (scattered cremation and in-urn graves).  Having an overall image of the Neolithic discoveries we can state that most of cremations graves belong to LBK communities (500 graves of 2500),91 burials discovered in settlements or which are part of the bi-ritual necropolises like the one in the Czech Republic at Kralice na Hané where from 78 graves, 69 were cremation graves92 and the cremations cemetery from Modlniczka near Cracow, with 38 tombs.
In Transylvania the oldest incineration grave is M7 from Gura Baciului94 (StarčevoCriș culture). Until now, it is the only certain discovery for the Carpathian-Danubian Early and Middle Neolithic. The Late Neolithic of the Romanian north-western area also presents some discoveries that show cremation practices. In the past decades, cremation graves were found at Tășad95, Suplacu de Barcău– Corău I96 (Bihor County), Zalău–Uroikert97, Zalău–Dealul Lupului98 and Porț–Corău99 (Sălaj County). We note that Suplacu de Barcău and Porț are parts of the same archaeological site, separated by administrative reasons100. Late Neolithic funerary discoveries from Porț–Corău (Pl. IV/1) stand above the others in terms of numbers and diversity of the ritual.  Both cremation and inhumation103 were identified as funerary practices in the Suplac communities from Porț.

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The Vlaho-Bulgarian Empires. I2/E1/J basic OldEurope layer, R1a warriors, R1b metallurgy. Culture & technology fusion.


kg0georgiaGolden ox figurine found in Maykop kurgan/mid-3rd millennium BC., Hermitage Museum & 3000 B.C(!?!), golden figurine of the Beddeni Culture, Alazani Valley in Georgia.

kg1Extraordinary kurgan burial shines new light on Sarmatian life, of the Early Iron Age, in the 1st millennium BC. More than one thousand artefacts were recovered from a tomb in the Orenburg region / Russia’s Southern Ural steppes, in 2013. ”Nomadic” culture in steppes.

kg5kg12Scythian gold zoomorphic handle from southern Urals, 4th century BC & Gold plaque of a deer, dated from the 5th century B.C. It was found in Kul Oba Barrow, near ancient Crimea, Ukraine. (excavations by P.A. Debrux, year 1830).

kg6kg7Plaque of a Scythian horseman, gold 4th century BC & Omphalos-Schale (Phial) Gold, Scythian culture from late 5th – early 4th century B.C., Dnieper Area, Zaporozhye Region Russia (now Ukraine) / State Hermitage Museum.

Barbarians? Look at their jewelry art! 8th century BCE pin from tumulus near the village of Vilshana, Cherkasy Region – Excavations 1984 . Scythian Diadem with a dimensions 8,1×12,3 cm. Diadem with a knot of Hercules. Dated from the 3rd century B.C.kg9

A prehistoric cult* complex which is about 7,500 years old, i.e. dating to the Chalcolithic, as well as what has been described as “possibly Prehistoric Europe’s largest stone building”, have been discovered by the archaeologists who have resumed the excavations of the Paleolithic and Neolithic settlement on the Big Island in the Durankulak Lake in Bulgaria’s northeastern-most corner. The excavations of the Varna_gold1Paleolithic and Neolithic settlement on the Big Island in Bulgaria’s Durankulak Lake first started in 1970s, with the discovered Paleolithic finds dating back to around 10,000 BC; and a Neolithic settlement dating back to between 5500-5400 BC and 5100-5000 BC. The settlement, which created what is said to be Europe’s first stone city, belongs to Blatnitsa, the earliest phase of Europe’s Late Neolithic Hamangia-Durankulak Culture (whose remains are found in today’s Black Sea regions of Bulgaria and Romania). The Big Island in the Durankulak Lake, a 3.4 square km lagoon, is known as the Lake City or the “European Troy”. It features prehistoric remains from what is said to be the first sedentary agricultural culture in Europe, which created Europe’s first stone architecture. The people who lived in this place were not just excellent builders but they were also among the first people in the world who started to smelt metals such as native copper and native gold, to forge jewels out of them, and to trade with them as far as the Mediterranean coast.

kurg The First Wave of Kurgans Into East-Central Europe c. 4400-4300 BC and Its Repercussions. The Cucuteni civilization survived the first wave of Kurgan incursions intact. there evidence of amalgamation of the two groups throughout these approximately 800 years of coexistence, at least not until the mid-4th millennium BC. The Displacement and Amalgamation of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinca, and Lengyel Cultures. For the Karanovo-Gumelnita civilization, the Kurgan incursions proved catastrophic. The small farming villages and townships were easily overrun, and Karanovo groups must have fled from the Lower Danube basin westward. In the first half of the 4th millennium BC, the Black Sea coastal Varna culture was replaced, in east Romania and Bulgaria, by a Kurganish complex designated as Cernavoda I. The fortified Cernavoda sites, in contrast to the Karanovo-Gumelnita and Varna settlements on the open plain, were strategically located on high river terraces. The archeological results have parallels throughout the Kurgan expansions. The process came to us as series of exogamic marital unions, where Kurgan people, each tribe and subdivision separately, seeks and joins a permanent marital partner, we have examples from every place that had annalistic records. The Kurgan disruption of Varna, Karanovo, and Vinca jolted a succession of dislocations in Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and as far west as the Upper Danube, Upper Elbe, and Upper Oder basins. Cultural boundaries disintegrated as elements of Vinca populations moved into western Hungary (to eventually become the “Balaton” complex), and into Croatia, Bosnia, and Slovenia (to become the “Lasinja” group). 31 The Lengyel people migrated west and north along the Upper Danube into Germany and Poland. Furthermore, sites of the probable Vinca refugees are also found in regions where no human community had settled since Paleolithic times, such as the eastern Alps and the central part of Slovenia and Croatian Karst. By the end of the 5th millennium BC, the Vinca traditions with their temples, figurines and exquisite pottery are no longer found. There is no continuity of habitation on the Vinca mound after c. 4300 BC. The Tiszapolgar complex, an offshoot of late Tisza, emerged in northeastern Hungary, eastern Slovakia, and western Transylvania. The continuity of their settlement to the mid-4th millennium BC indicates that these people survived and did not merge with the Kurgan culture. While the civilization of Old Europe was agricultural, matricentric, and matrilineal, a transformation took place around 4000 BC to a mixed agricultural-pastoral economy and a classed patriarchal society which I interpret as a successful process of Indo-Europeanization. There was a considerable increase in husbandry over tillage. The change of social structure, religion, and economy was not a gradual indigenous development from Old Europe, but a collision and gradual hybridization of two societies and of two ideologies. Fortunately for us, we can trace these Kurgan people by the emergence of their genetical markers from the center of Asia to N.Pontic, and to Europe, with their Kurganization of Europe, which initiated eastward migration of somewhat Kurganized Europeans all the way to India.
Probably the best model is the expansion of the Slavs into the Eastern Europe, a creeping phased process that starts on a small scale into vacant niches and achieves accommodation with the local population, then a development into symbiotic syncretic phase along the old lines of command, and culminating with either a rise of the local rulers, or the pre-existing local or nomadic rulers claiming suzerainty over independent communities. Though conflicts are unavoidable, the process is generally bloodless, but the combat capacity is greatly enhanced with acquisition of cavalry and methods of mobile warfare. None of the premises constituting M.Gimbutas Kurgan theory appear to have solid grounds at the most critical time of switching from the Old Europe to Kurganization: mythological Sun cult is ethereal, pronounced militancy absent, patriarchy ethereal. The demographic ratio points to insignificant linguistic influence, mostly limited to new toponyms, horse husbandry terminology, and religious and societal terminology, i.e. the spheres that were affected the most. Not all of central Europe was converted to the Kurgan way of life as an outcome of Wave No. 1, but it is clear that most of the Danube basin began to be ruled from hill forts. It took many successive generations for the Old European traditions to become gradually replaced. The indigenous populations either coexisted but remained separate from the Kurgan immigrants or were overrun and subjected to domination by a few Kurgan warriors. A considerable number of Old European culture groups — the Cucuteni, TRB, and the western portion of the LBK — continued their existence throughout the first half of the 4th millennium BC or even longer. An increased Kurganization occurred during the second half of the 4th millennium BC, which is treated in the section below.


The Second Wave, c. 3500 BC, and the Transformation of Central Europe After the Middle of the 4th Millennium BC. This period of transformation coincides with changes in metal technology and the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in the circum-Pontic region. The new metallurgy is characterized by bronzes of copper and arsenic, copper and tin, and copper with arsenic-tin (As, Sn, As-Sn bronze) which replaced the pure copper metallurgy of the Old European Copper Age. Tests made on arsenical bronze prove it to have been reasonably hard and durable, but a side effect must have been the slow and sure poisoning of the smith. The complex of tools and weapons that emerged north and west of the Black Sea — daggers, knives, halberds, chisels, flat axes, shafthole axes — does not show a continuity from Old European local types. Rather, the shapes of bronze artifacts have analogies in the north Caucasus, in Transcaucasia, and the Near East. The Source: The North Pontic Maikop Culture – R1b. Hill forts with enormous fortifications and outstanding kurgans, including exceptionally well-built tombs of stone slabs, suggest a hierarchic society of consolidated tribal units ruled by leading families. The similarity of fortified settlements, burial rites, and ceramic, stone, and metal artifacts recovered northeast and northwest of the Black Sea suggests the unification of this region, not only by commercial contacts but also by political power. The North Pontic region had at this stage diverged from its Kurgan cousin of the Volga. The Kurgan elements that appear west of the Black Sea are clearly connected with the North Pontic, not with the Volga Steppe and have analogies in the Kuro-Araks valley of Transcaucasia. Royal burials and hoards of the late Maikop culture in the River Kuban basin, northwestern Caucasus, express the fabulous riches of tribal leaders and their contacts with Mesopotamia in the early 3rd millennium BC.

An Amalgam of Kurgan and Cucuteni Traditions: The Usatovo Complex Northwest of the Black Sea. Outstanding sites are Usatovo near Odessa 59 and Tudorovo in Moldavia. The richest graves were those of the leading member of the tribe and his suttee while graves of other adults and children were contrastingly poor. Near the settlement and kurgan at Usatovo there is a contemporaneous cemetery of the indigenous Cucuteni culture consisting of simple, unmarked (flat) pit graves, arranged in rows. Contrasting burial rites of the Cucuteni and Kurgan populations are paralleled by differences in their respective habitation sites. Cucuteni dwellings were on wide river terraces, while the Kurgans located their semisubterranean dwellings on spurs, dunes, and steep hills along rivers.
A Kurgan-Influenced Culture in East-Central Europe: The Baden-Vucedol and Ezero Groups. The second Kurgan infiltration headed south from the North Pontic region toward the Lower Danube area and beyond. At the fortified hill at Cernavoda, in Dobruja, radiocarbon dates from the second phase of the hill give the age as c. 3 400-3 200 BC.62 By that time, a chain of acropolises (citadels) along the Danube, in the Marica (Bulgaria) plain, and in the area north of the Aegean, reflected the spread of a ruling power. The finest recently excavated tells, converted to hill forts, are at Ezero in central Bulgaria, 63 and Sitagroi on the Drama Plain of Greek Macedonia. 64 In the Lower Danube, Marica, and Macedonian plains, many Karanovo tells indicate that the indigenous occupation of these sites was disrupted, and many were surmounted by fortifications (such are the Ezero, Sitagroi IV, Karanovo VII, Nova Zagora, Veselinovo, and Bikovo). In other areas, steep river banks and almost inaccessible promontories were selected as seats of the ruling class.
An Amalgamation of the Old European and the Kurgan Cultures. During the second half of the 4th millennium BC, the new regime seems to have successfully eliminated or changed whatever remained of the old social system. Hill forts were the centers of power and cultural life, while the surrounding area supported either pastoral or agricultural populations, depending on the environment and the numbers of indigenous people who remained. Villages were small, the houses usually semi subterranean. But in the economy, an amalgamation of the Old European and the Kurgan cultural systems is clearly evident. In some areas, such as in central Bulgaria, cultivation of emmer, barley, vetch, and pea continued intact, probably carried on by the remaining indigenous population. In other territories, seasonal camps of a pastoral economy prevailed. The Old European symbolism largely vanished from popular artifacts, giving way to the ubiquitous solar design. Toward the end of the 4th millennium BC, only isolated islands of the Old European tradition persisted. Such was the Cotofeni complex in the Danube valley in Oltenia, western Muntenia, southern Banat, and Transylvania. The Cotofeni  were sedentary agriculturalists, living in solidly built houses, using copper tools, and still producing burnished red and white painted ceramics. Large numbers of bird-shaped vases attest the continuing worship of the Bird Goddess.

The Baden-Vucedol Culture in the Middle Danube Basin. The Baden complex, composed of indigenous and alien elements, covered the Middle Danube basin, with northern limits in Bohemia and southern Poland. In the south, it is known in the Morava-Vardar valleys of Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and even Albania.68The available  radiocarbon dates range between the 34th and 29th centuries BC. From the sparse analyses of the oldest kurgan burials we can anticipate that the males in the Baden kurgan burials had a mixture of predominant R1a and lesser R1b haplogroups, brought over from the Central Asia, and vanishingly small traces of the Q and K haplogroups. In the later kurgan burials, such as Scythian, the proportion of the R1b, Q and K may be higher, and possibly appear C and N haplogroups. The Old Europe males are anticipated to belong to the I and J haplogroups. Most of the metallurgical activities took place in these fortified locations.
The Ezero Culture in Bulgaria, the Northern Aegean, and Western Anatolia. The continuity of this remarkable civilization, as we have seen in chapters 2 and 3, is well attested for almost two thousand years, c. 6000-4200 BC. Then, as a result of Kurgan Wave No. 1, the continuity of the Karanovo life was truncated. After a hiatus, a hybrid culture emerged which was an amalgamation of Old European traditions overlayed with new Kurgan influences.


Herodotus thought the Cimmerians and the Thracians closely related, writing that both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced about 700 BC, by invaders from the east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading west and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated southwest into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture. It is conceivable that a small-scale (in terms of population) 8th century “Thraco-Cimmerian” migration triggered cultural changes that contributed to the transformation of the Urnfield culture into the Hallstatt C culture, ushering in the European Iron Age.


As his uncle Organa took Kubrat as a child to the capital of Byzantium, Constantinople, he lived there for a couple of years and came to know Byzantine culture and way of life. He became friends with the future emperor Iraclius and this friendship lasted till his death. On returning to his homeland, Kubrat spearheaded the battle of kubrathis people against the Avars. After driving them away, he created about the year 630 the state of Great Bulgaria, which he ruled almost 30 years. After his death his sons buried him with great ceremony and soon separated as the state fell under the rule of the Hazars. His third son headed for the Danube where he founded a state, which is a continuation of the traditions of the old Bulgaria… great state of Kubrat disintegrated after his death under the strong pressure of the Hazars. His five sons separated and took in different directions. Only Asparuh succeeded in fulfilling the goal of his father on the Balkan Peninsula. The Pereshchepina Treasure is not an ordinary treasure. Its historic importance is invaluable as information about the first years of the Bulgarian state.


In ~660, the Khazars, another federated people freed from the yoke of the Western Turkic Khaganate, attacked Bulgaria from the east and captured Phanagoria and its Black Sea holdings up to the Dnieper. Although it was originally believed that the entire state was wiped out by the attack, 7th century chroniclers mention no such dissolution, khazand a treasure trove near Poltava believed to house Kubrat’s tomb seems to have been erected in 665 at a time of peace, implying that Kubrat had repelled the Khazars and still held territory in present-day Ukraine at the time of his death. The destruction of Old Great Bulgaria and the scattering of the four brothers may in fact have been the Khazars merely conquering an important part of the country and severing the territorial links between its outlying provinces. So Asparukh inherited, rather than wandered into, the lands north of the Danube after the death of his father, and his brother Kotrag inherited, rather than reaching, what would later become Volga Bulgaria.


The First Bulgarian Empire (modern Bulgarian: Първo българско царство, Parvo Balgarsko Tsarstvo) is the historiographical term for the khanate founded by the Bulgars circa 681, when they settled in the northeastern Balkans, subdued or drove out the Byzantines and made the South Slavic settlers their allies. Capital Pliska (681–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopje (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018). It evolved into a principality in 864 and an empire around 913-927. At the height of its power Bulgaria spread from the Danube Bend to the Black Sea and from the Dnieper River to the Adriatic Sea. bg1

As the state solidified its position in the Balkans, it entered on a centuries-long interaction, sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile, with the Byzantine Empire. Bulgaria emerged as Byzantium’s chief antagonist to its north, resulting in several wars. The two powers also enjoyed periods of peace and alliance, most notably during the Second Arab siege of Constantinople, where the Bulgarian army broke the siege and destroyed the Arab army, thus preventing an Arab invasion of Southeastern Europe. Byzantium had a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, which also led to the eventual adoption of Christianity in 864. After the disintegration of the Avar Khaganate, the country expanded its territory northwest to the Pannonian Plain. Later the Bulgarians confronted the advance of the Pechenegs and Cumans, and achieved a decisive victory over the Magyars, forcing them to establish themselves permanently in Pannonia. During the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Simeon I achieved a string of victories over the Byzantines, and was recognized with the title of Emperor, and expanded the state to its greatest extent. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Bulgarians laid siege to Constantinople in 923 and 924. The Byzantines eventually recovered, and in 1014 under Basil II, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion.[10] By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered to the Byzantine Empire, and the First Bulgarian Empire had ceased to exist.[11] It was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185.

The golden age of Bulgarian culture and the beginning of Bulgarian culture influence over Slavonic world. Tsar Simeon I the Great /893-927/. Simeon was the third son of knays Boris and was called “a child of peace” i.e Simeon is the first of the Boris’ children who was educated as a true Christian. Simeon was the third child and according to Bulgarian tradition only the first and second child could be inheritors of the throne. Because of this it was judged to him to take the church career. After graduated his secondary education at Pliska he was sent to Magnur school at Constantinople, where “learn to perfect classic Greek literature, astronomy, arithmetic and all philosophic arts”. A half century later byzantine diplomacy continued to called him “a half Greek”. After this according to chroniclers “he left his scientific occupations and devoted himself to church „ Probably Simeon came back to Bulgaria around 886 when the students of Cyril and Methodius had been already arrived at Pliska. There was an opinion that Simeon was called back by his father according to his plans to spread around Bulgarian the Christianity and the new Slavonic script. Then by Climent of Ohrid and Naum Simeon received his first lessons of Slavonic alphabet.
Soon the events in Bulgaria took dramatic change. The new knyas Vladimir tried to restore the old believes. The Bulgarian source without doubt says that no one but Simeon was the initiator of Vladimir’s dethroning. “By the God’s blessing and Boris’ desires Simeon dethrone Vladimir and took his place”. On the church council in Preslav was decided that the new knays should be Simeon, the greek clergy was banished from Bulgaria. Then in a fervid speech Boris threatened Simeon that if he devoted himself to old Gods he would follow his brother. Actually that was a warning to Vladimir’s supporters, because that there is not doubts that Simeon would follow the Christians’ dogma.
The reaction from Byzantium didn’t late. Emperor Leo VI Philosopher moved the Bulgarian market-place from capital to Thessaloniki and put harder duties to Bulgarian traders. When Simeon learnt about this he announced the emperor Leo. “Blinded by his partialities the emperor considered this for oddments. This made Simeon angry and he launched a campaign against empire.” Someone consider this for first economic war in Europe. Anyway the main battle was in Thrace and “byzantine army was defeated and most of their commanders were killed”. The taken captive emperor Guards’ were sent to Constantinople with cut noses for “shame of the byzantines”. Because the emperor Leo VI was engaged with a war with Arabs, byzantine diplomacy made the impossible and “by the price of big gifts the Magyars agreed to attack Bulgaria”. At 894 Byzantine fleet appeared at Danube and unloads there a big Magyar army. This surprised Simeon because all his armies were on the south front with Byzantium. Counting on this Byzantines started peace negotiations, but after “ruined north Dobrudja the Magyars went north undisturbed”. Using that Simeon threw the messengers into jail and sent armies to north and blocked Danube with iron chains. Unfortunately byzantine fleet managed to pass through the chains and once again surprised Simeon, which armies were defeated and “alone Simeon succeed to reach in safety Dorostorum“. After Magyars passed again north Simeon pretended to want peace and byzantine messengers arrived at Preslav led by Leo Hristophactous who have to negotiate the conditions. Meanwhile Simeon attracted to his side the Pechenegs and with “their help pounced on Magyars and because they didn’t received any help by Byzantines stayed unprepared and were perfectly defeated as most of them were killed”. “As came back prouder from the victory he /Simeon/ became much more haughty” stopped all peace negotiations and with all his armies rushed into Thrace. Understanding about this Byzantines moved all their armies from Mala Asia to Balkans. The battle between two armies was near Bulgarofigonus /today Baba Esky/ where the imperial armies were totally defeated. – summer of 896. Simeon continued his march to Constantinople, but was stopped by an army of Arabian hostages. On the next year Simeon attacked southwest regions on the Balkans and “included those towns in Bulgaria”. At the beginning of X century Bulgarians besieged of Thessaloniki and as a result the border was drawn on 20 km north of the town.
The following years of peace were used by Simeon to create a strong base which had to give him the superiority over the empire. To the political prestige of Byzantium Simeon simnhas to work out his own platform which aim was to create an empire worthy enough to overshadow the Byzantine empire and to become a corner-stone of the future Slavonic culture. He started with building of the new capital – Veliki Preslav /translated something near to Great Glory/. As a student of Magnur school Simeon became well acquainted with Constantinople and he wanted to build a city similar to it. And did it, his contemporaries described impressive patriarchal cathedral and Palaces decorated with gold and silver, streets made from marble and colorful buildings around. The constructions of the capital took 28 years. Together with this Simeon continued the unfinished work of his father. He “built many churches, ordained many bishops and spread the Christianity around Bulgaria in his pure dogmas”. Moreover Simeon became the soul of intellectual circle which put the beginning of a new culture which base was Slavonic script. The two academies in Preslav and Ohrid were engaged to translate all known books using Slavonic script. While head of the Ohrid academy became Kliment of Ohrid, the head of Preslav’s one became Simeon. The knyas won the admiration of all his contemporaries, who called him “a famous book lover” who “studied all old and new books, canonical and non-canonical, and most of all the Holy writ and understanding all customs and rituals to all of his teachers, the pious knyas Simeon was impressed by the words of John Chrysostom. After read all his books he understood all of them and wrote a book which called Zlatostrui /understand – “a stream of golden words”/. Together with Climent of Ohrid, Naum of Preslav, John Exarch, presbyter Constantine and Chernorizets Hrabar created many books which protects the thesis that every one nation has the right to build his own culture and language. “All they were sure that their act would influence not only Bulgaria, but all Slavonic nations”.
Thus the first 20 years of his reign. Simeon made this personal prestige that made him one of the most educated and remarkable persons of his time. Simeon had not only the power of the sword but also the power of the word. He considered himself not only equal to emperor, but also that he would be that man who would lead out Bulgaria from the shadow of Byzantine Empire.
On may 912 emperor Leo VI Philosopher died, he left only one successor – the juvenile Constantine VII. The authority was taken by the regent Alexander – Leo’s brother. Soon after Simeon send messengers to Constantinople who had to renegotiate the peace. “Blinded by foolishness Alexander went back messengers and insulted Simeon”. The challenge was more than welcome and a war started. With the difficult aim “to stop this madness was asked the patriarch Nikolaou Mystiques” who send several letters to Simeon but without success. Soon at Constantinople arrived rumors that Simeon prepared himself to conquer Constantinople and whole European part of the Empire. Followed up more letters of the patriarch but again didn’t change anything. “So on august 913, Simeon, the ruler of Bulgaria launched a campaign against the Romans and with big armies besieged Constantinople” Soon after the negotiation started and on a short: Simeon’s desires were two: he to be crowned as an emperor /tsar/ of Bulgaria and the young emperor Constantine VII to be merried for his daughter. Without doubt Bulgarians celebrated fully victory – on a ceremony Simeon was announced for an emperor and engagement was announced, thus after Simeon titled himself as “tsar of all Bulgarians and Greeks”.
At the beginning of 914 at Constantinople a coup d’état was accomplished. The old regent government was replaced by new one led by empress Zoya – Constantine’s mother. Her first step was to annul the engagement. The clash between the two empires was unavoidable. Byzantium didn’t want to step back, neither did Simeon was agreed with the new situation. The roman diplomacy made the impossible and a peace with Arabs was concluded, but fell with its task to find an ally in the Bulgarian back. Knowing well the byzantine tactic Bulgarians anticipated them. Simeon managed to put on the Serbian throne his protégé and about Pechnegs – “who were great care for Bulgarians, because they wanted to married their children to Bulgarians and this way to conclude peace with them”. It’s became clear that everything would be decided on the battlefield in Thrace.
Byzantines inspired from their recent victory over Arabs wanted “once for all to get rid of Bulgarian threat and to restore the Danube border” so they transferred all armies from the east front. After “their commanders sworn in the Holy cross that would die but not surrender, the whole byzantine army /around 62 000 men/ rushed into Bulgaria”. Simeon also prepared himself well and “after took all his allies went against them” with an army around 60 000 man. The battle became on 20.08.917 near small river of Achelous, today Bulgaria near Sunny beach. Most details of the battle are given by the historian Scillica. The Byzantines hit the wings, because wanted to cut off way of Bulgarians toward mountain. Bulgarians wings “started fleeing back, but not disorderly and soon among Romans fear and hesitation were spread”. Tsar Simeon who was observing the battle from near hills waited for the best moment and personally led the hidden in ambush Bulgarian cavalry. “The Romans who already have been fallen spiritual stayed completely surprised; they turned back, and started fleeing”. Such bloodshed wasn’t seen for centuries – “part of the Romans were killed by sword, other have drown in the sea, third have died crushed by the running horses and people or other violence but every one found his death in a different way”. The historian Leo Deacon says “And even now there could be seen piles of bones at Anchialus, where the fleeing army of the Romans was disgracefully slain.” This victory made of Simeon master of the situation and he rushed to Constantinople, near the capital defeated another byzantine army and when way to the capital was clear surprisingly turned back and attacked Serbians who revolted inspired by Byzantines. On the next year Simeon attacked Hellas and “ruined its towns and incorporated its lands into Bulgarian empire”. Meantime another coup d’état happened in Constantinople. This time empress Zzoya was replaced by Roman Lapkis who married his daughter to Constantine VII. It seemed that the luck once again challenged Simeon who immediately “announced that Roman must refuse the throne and leave the kingdom which already has belonged to Bulgarians”. On autumn 920 Simeon found himself on another campaign against empire. This time he managed to conquer Dardanelles, his plans were to block the navy entrance to the capital. The initiative form peace once again was taken by patriarch Nikolaou Mystique, who confessed that “those people, which madness was motivated by the Devil and gave a reason for war are not important now“. The patriarch also proposed a wedding between the Lapkis’ son and the Simeon’s daughter. This wasn’t in Simeon’s plans that already have seen himself as a “father of Constantine”. The negotiation was interrupted and on 921 Bulgarian army once again was under wall of Constantinople. This time Byzantines mustered courage and met Bulgarians on the battlefield but when “they /Bulgarians/ appeared, making terrible noises and powerfully attacked Romans all commanders /Byzantine/ threw weapons and started fleeing”. Then followed such “slaughtering that cannot be described”. And this time the empire once again was saved by the Serbians, who again revolted. Around 923 after stabilized the situation on all fronts Simeon undertook another campaign against Byzantine empire. Before this he announced himself as tsar of all Bulgarians and Romans which openly demonstrated the main aim of his political program. Under the wall of Constantinople Simeon insisted for personal meeting with patriarch Nikolaou Mystique and Roman Lapkis. On 9.09.923 “Simeon arrived on a head of big army, which was separated on many squads. One of them were wearing golden armours and pikes, other silver’s, third iron painted in different colors. Then they as put Simeon between them, welcome him on Greek language as an emperor of all”. The conditions were two: Constantinople to open its gate to Simeon and he to be announced for tsar of the whole West i.e. tsar of Bulgarians and Romans. The answer of the emperor that is impossible on earth to have two emperors and after “received big gifts and more lands Simeon concluded peace because of the west Serbians again revolted”. This time in a single campaign in the end 924 Simeon liquidated Serbian state and incorporated it finally into Bulgaria. Simeon died from heart attack on 27.05.927 on 63 years old.
The opinions of the Simeon’s contemporaries about him are strongly contradictory while Romans blamed Simeon for the death of thousand soldiers and many ruined towns, Bulgarians sources compares him with the great persons of the time – “he similar to tsar David was playing on harp with golden strings”, with “golden pen wrote his Zlatostui”, “he build the patriarchal golden church in Preslav – one architectural jewel of the epoch”, “on his throne room Simeon was sitting on a golden throne”. The time of tsar Simeon stayed in Bulgarian history as a peak of development of the country. After Simeon all Bulgarian rulers should be called tsar, Bulgaria – an empire. The Simeon’s golden epoch put one strong base for the further influence of Bulgarian culture over other Slavonic nations.


The Second Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsartsvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396 or 1422.[2] A successor to the First Bulgarian Empire, it reached the peak of its power under Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II before gradually being conquered by the Ottomans in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. It was succeeded by the Principality and later Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1878. Until 1256, the Second Bulgarian Empire was the dominant power in the Balkans. The Byzantines were defeated in several major battles, and in 1205 Emperor Kaloyan defeated the newly established Latin Empire in the Battle of Adrianople. His nephew Ivan Asen II defeated the Despotate of Epiros and made Bulgaria a regional power again. During his reign, Bulgaria spread from the Adriatic to the Black Sea and the economy flourished. However, in the late 13th century, the Empire declined under constant invasions of Mongols, Byzantines, Hungarians, and Serbs, as well as internal unrest and revolts. Despite a strong Byzantine influence, the Bulgarian artists and architects created their own distinctive style. In the 14th century, during the period known as the Second Golden Age of Bulgarian culture, literature and art flourished.[3] The capital city Tarnovo, which was considered a “New Constantinople”, became the country’s main cultural hub and the centre of the Eastern Orthodox world for contemporary Bulgarians.[4] After the Ottoman conquest, many Bulgarian clerics and scholars emigrated to Serbia, Wallachia, Moldavia, and Russian principalities, where they introduced Bulgarian culture, books, and hesychastic ideas.[5]
Bellow Reconstruction of the face of Caloiohannes Imperator Bulgarorum et Blachorum unveiled in 2008, based on his skeleton found in 1972 in the Forty Holy Martyrs Church in Veliko Tarnovo.


The Balkan–Danubian culture[1][2] was an early medieval archaeological culture which emerged in the region of the Lower Danube in the 8th century and flourished until the 11th century. In Romania it is called Dridu culture, while in Bulgaria it is usually referred to as Pliska-Preslav culture. It is better represented on the territory of modern-day Northern Bulgaria although its spread north of the Danube is also well attested due to the continuous extension of the First Bulgarian Empire over the territory of present-day Romania.[4] The Balkan–Danubian culture is described as an early Slavic-Bulgarian culture,[5] but besides Slavic and Bulgar elements it possesses also some Romance components, all of them under a Byzantine influence.[6]

bg2The approximate distribution of Y-DNA haplogroups among the Bulgarian people runs as follows: 16% E1b1b, 1% G2a, 3% I1, 20% I2a (very common among South Slavic peoples),
1% I2b, 20% J2, 1% Q, 18% R1a, 18% R1b, 1% T. Phylogenetic and correspondence analyses showed that Bulgarians are more closely related to Macedonians, Greeks, and Romanians than to other European populations and Middle Eastern people living near the Mediterranean. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ~ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G) and in South Western Asia (R-L23*) occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. (i) R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible.

Haplogroup R1a1a, also referred to as haplogroup R-M17 or R-M198, is a Y-DNA haplogroup defining one of the most common human male lines found in modern Eurasia. It is defined by the SNP mutation M17, and is particularly common in a large region extending from Central Europe and Scandinavia to South Asia and R1a1a_distributionSouthern Siberia. In Afghanistan, R1a1a is found at 51.02% among the Pashtuns who are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, 50% among the Kyrgyz and 30.36% among the Tajiks. The Shimar (Shammar) Bedouin tribe in Kuwaitshow the highest frequency in the Middle East at 43%. In India, high frequencies of this haplogroup is observed in West Bengal Brahmins (72%)(Sengupta 2005) to the east, Konkanastha Brahmins (48%) (Sengupta 2005) to the west, Khatris (67%)(Underhill 2009) in the north and Iyenger Brahmins (31%)(Sengupta 2005) in the south. Studies have found 20.3% R-M17* among Kurdish samples which were taken in the Kurdistan Province in western Iran, 12.8% among Persian and 17.6% among Zoroastrians in Yazd, 18.2% among Persians in Isfahan, 20.3% among Persians in Khorasan, 16.7% Afro-Iranians, 18.4% Qeshmi “Gheshmi”, 21.4% among Persian Speaking Bandari people in Hormozgan and 25% among the Baloch people in Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Grugni 2012).


In Europe, the R1a1 sub-clade, is found at highest levels among peoples of Eastern European descent (Sorbs, Poles, Russians and Ukrainians; 50 to 65%) (Balanovsky 2008, Behar 2003, and Semino 2000). In the Baltic countries R1a1a frequencies decrease from Lithuania (45%) to Estonia (around 30%) (Kasperaviciūte 2005). Levels in Hungarians have been noted between 20 and 60%.
bulg ydna

Balkan ‘Aryan’ waves: 2800-2500bc R1b Troy, 2000-1500bc R1a Macedonians/Ionians/Micenians, 1200BC – R1b Dorians

Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) - Eupedia

Map of Neolithic cultures in Europe from approximately 5500 to 6000 years ago The first forays of steppe people into the Balkans happened between 4200 BCE and 3900 BCE, when cattle herders equipped with horse-drawn wagons crossed the Dniester and Danube and apparently destroyed the towns of the Gumelnita, Varna and Karanovo VI cultures in Eastern Romania and Bulgaria. 
A climatic change resulting in colder winters during this exact period probably pushed steppe herders to seek milder pastures for their stock, while failed crops would have led to famine and internal disturbance within the Danubian and Balkanic communities. The ensuing Cernavoda culture (Copper Age, 4000-3200 BCE), Coțofeni culture (Copper to Bronze Age, 3500-2500 BCE) and Ezero culture(Bronze Age, 3300-2700 BCE), in modern Romania, seems to have had a mixed population of steppe immigrants and people from the old tell settlements. These steppe immigrants were likely a mixture of both R1a and R1b lineages, with a probably higher percentage of R1a than later Yamna-era invasions. This precocious Indo-European advance westward was fairly limited, due to the absence of Bronze weapons and organised army at the time, and was indeed only possible thanks to climatic catastrophes which reduced the defences of the towns of Old Europe. The Carphatian, Danubian, and Balkanic cultures were too densely populated and technologically advanced to allow for a massive migration. In comparison the forest-steppe R1a people successfully penetrated into the heart of Europe with little hindrance, due to the absence of developed agrarian societies around Poland and the Baltic.



Around 3000BCE ‘Transylvania’ becomes the starting platform from where Western Europe will be conquered by R1b. The great Greco-Macedonian 1900BC wave is R1a coming from the N of the Carpathians.The W of Europe becomes ”totally red” -celtic R1b. The final wave in 1200BC is the south migration of R1b, the explosion of the Hallstatt culture.



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What stopped Mongol hordes from conquering Europe – a few degrees is all it takes to change the course of human history

scientists-finally-know-what-stopped-mongol-hordes-from-conquering-europe By 1240, Kiev had been sacked and the horde was rapidly advancing west. Their cavalry and siege tactics were laying waste to the cities of Europe, and, perhaps more importantly, they brought along Chinese gunpowder. This series of unqualified successes brought the vast Mongol army to Hungary in March 1241. King Bela IV fled his palace in Pest (now Screenshot 2016-05-29 13.02.29Budapest), and Ogodei’s armies slaughtered an estimated 1 million Hungarians: Troops, clerics, nobles, knights, and peasants. It was one of the bloodiest defeats of the medieval period. The following year, everything changed. The horde suddenly turned south, moving through modern-day Serbia, and then headed back through Russia. Though subsequent khans staged occasional raids on European cities, the major war campaign was over.
The authors sampled wood from five regions of Eurasia to track what the weather was like during the period of the Mongols’ most extensive reach. Trees are especially sensitive to small changes in climactic conditions: In wet years, they add thick layers of bark to their trunks. In dry years, the rings are thinner, reflecting the lack of water to a tree. They found the climate in Hungary and its surroundings were unusually cold and wet for about three years, from 1238 to 1241. The extra moisture and early spring thaw turned the Hungarian plains into marshes and swampland — unsuitable terrain for moving the thousands of horses the Mongol armies relied on for transportation and warfare.
As scientists gain the ability to examine the climate record in greater detail, we’re discovering more about how climate shaped history. Unusual climates probably allowed Polynesians to spread out across the South Pacific, led to the fall of an ancient metropolis in pre-colonial Mexico, and encouraged Attila the Hun’s campaign of terror against the Roman Empire 800 years before Genghis Khan. The authors conclude that their study of the Mongolian withdrawal from Hungary “illustrates the incidence of even small climate fluctuations upon a historical event.”

mongol invasionț

According to (7) “when they reached the city of Székesfevehérvár that is surrounded by marshes they could not take it because the snow and ice was about to melt”. In Croatia, Qadan could not attack the city of Trogir because the flooded area separating its walls from the land was impassable on account of the depth of the mud. The army was therefore forced to withdraw. The former shows that the thaw of the snow and ice may have caused large areas to become flooded and marshy, thus impeding or restricting the movement of the Mongols. The latter example suggests that the Mongols could not easily cope with flooded and muddy terrain. The captives of the Mongols were no longer given food, and failed harvest caused general starvation. Both the decimation and dispersal of the population caused by the Mongols20 and adverse climate conditions (cold and wet) may have been concurrent triggers for harvest failure, which reduced not only the survival rate of the local population, but also the sources of provisions for the Mongol army.
The combined effects of the war and a less favorable climate may have also caused the failure of the harvest of 1242 and the ensuing ‘great famine’ in Hungary. It should be further noted that military operations of inner Asian nomads, to which the Mongols were no exception, were normally executed in autumn and continued through the winter, while the spring and summer were seasons in which they were at their weakest and most vulnerable. Military seasonality is part and parcel with the pastoral economy upon which the Mongols depended, and with the management of its resources, primarily horses. According to contemporary sources, the Mongols did not provide forage for the horses but allowed them to graze freely in the grassland. This indicates an obvious vulnerability in case no sufficient grass was available or in easy reach.
It is therefore under conditions of (i) reduced mobility and military effectiveness; (ii) reduced fodder for the horses; and (iii) reduced victuals for the army, which in the late spring of 1242 the Mongols left Hungary. The main Mongol army withdrew towards east following the southern course of the Danube (Fig. 1), thus crossing Serbia into Bulgaria, where they obtained the submission of the king Kaliman I at Tarnovo, before crossing Wallachia and Moldavia and returning to the steppes in the lower Volga region. A secondary army under Qadan that had travelled to Dalmatia in pursuit of King Béla followed the same route, joining the main army. Some minor contingent, such as the troops that had captured Roger may have proceeded to return through Transylvania. It is difficult to say why Batu chose to return by a southern route, but it is possible that the army moved to overall dryer and higher ground along the Carpathian foothills to avoid marshy conditions. –


Mongols settled in areas that were ecologically suitable to their economy, lifestyle, and military needs (the Volga basin). The Hungarian branch of the campaign was one of the western campaigns under Batu. That the Mongols stayed in southern Russia and did not seriously attempt to invade eastern Europe again (with the exception of a short-lived invasion of Poland in 1259) has not been so far an object of historical inquiry. However, this paper raises the possibility that the vulnerability of the Hungarian plains to even relatively short-term climate events made it obvious that the region was unsuitable for military occupation by a large army relaying mostly on horses. It is worth noting that the Hungarian river system was prone to flooding and to creating marshlands, and only much later it became drier, thanks to drainage work undertaken by the Hapsburgs in the 19th century27,28.
Our paper shows that a possible reason why the Mongols who occupied Russia under Batu and his successors did not make further attempts to expand westward may have depended on the realization that local conditions would not have supported a prolonged occupation. While the reasons why the conquest of the West halted in southern Russia have to remain speculative in the absence of proper documentation, we should consider environmental conditions on a par with political ones, such as the civil war that engulfed the Golden Horde and the Il-Khanate in following decades.. –

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From Old Europe to Iron Age – the Ethnogenesis of Europe

copper The earliest recorded metal employed by humans seems to be gold which can be found free or “native”. The first evidence of this extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC, and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[5] these examples include a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. By combining copper and tin, a superior mettmetal could be made, an alloy called bronze, a major technological shift which began the Bronze Age about 3500 BC. According to National Museum archaeologist Dušan Šljivar, experts found a “copper chisel and stone ax at a location near Prokuplje in which the foundation has proven to be 7,500 years old, leading us to believe that it was one of the first places in which metal weapons and tools were made in prehistoric times.” The oldest evidence of copper metallurgy is from the Vinča culture in Serbia around 5500 BCE. From there is quickly spread to Bulgaria (Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture, etc.), then to the eupbrCarpathians (Cucuteni-Tripyllian culture) and the Danubian basin. These cultures of ‘Old Europe’ would have included haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, J and T (as well as I2a1 for Cucuteni-Tripyllian).
The Khvalynsk culture in the Volga region marks the first appearance of the chalcolithic in the steppe. Copper working quickly spread in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe and associated cultures further north (Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture) and west (Corded Ware culture). This dispersal was of course linked to haplogroups R1b and R1a. It is noteworthy that the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus (from 3800 BCE) immediately started off as a Bronze Age culture, and apparently the world’s oldest.

Metal_production_in_Ancient_Middle_EastPersianGulfTrade_CopperTin_BronzeAge Before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC bronze artefacts were without tin bronzes in western Asia. Copper-tin ores are rare, in the Mediterranean region there was then no significant reserves of tin. The amber was xBronzeAge2-01_3.jpg.pagespeed.ic.UwwIIGnqt1the gold of the Baltic Sea, the Baltic Sea was not then on the periphery of the civilized world, but it was a supplier of luxury goods that world. The Amber Trail was used to transport the most important raw material of this era, the tin. These raw materials controlled the northern and central part of Europe. Tin was the main raw material of the Bronze Age. It was the most important strategic resource, tin is next to the copper the main component of bronze alloys. It was much more important than copper because it was much less accessible. Tin was then more important than gold, it was so crucial today as oil or gas. Caesar invaded Britain precisely because of its important tin mines! (Just as Traian invaded Dacia because of the Gold.)
The Tin (Cassiterite) Distribution Google Earth 3D GIS Project was tinoriginally initiated in 2007 and has finally come to fruition. It is intended to definitively present all currently known instances of the primary ore of Tin throughout the entirety of Europe, the Middle East, and all of North Africa in an attempt to begin to finally put to an end the lingering controversy regarding the availability of Tin to the Eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze Age.


Not far from the actual border between Poland and Germany, the border between the Slav and Celt worlds, between R1a and R1b, archeologists are digging up the remains of the biggest battle of the Bronze Age, rewriting the history.  At 1300BC maybe this battle was tarbetween R1a and R1b, just before the invasion of the Mediteranian world by the Sea People, who destroyed all the city state of the Middle East. Here used to be the beginning of the Amber route, the battle for the control of these resources – amber and tin was obvious, this route was used to invade the Mediterana (and Black Sea, down the Dnieper). Here was a big city Wolin so this city is similar with the Trojan war. German Bishop Adam of Bremen in 1080 wrote that “in Pomerania at the mouth of the Oder River (the most abundant in the rivers of the Slavs) there is the largest city in Europe, controlling the trade of northern Europe. Slavs live together with other nations, Greeks and the barbarians.”
The 1200BC exodus is similar with the viking conquest of Rusia, England, Normandy, Sicily which led to the fall of the Byzantin Empire. The exodus was probably caused by climatic changes and it was possible because of the superior metal technology, hence military superiority of the R1a world with it’s center in Erzberg area. See translation with google translate of this great article Excavations at Tollense can be compared with the excavations of the Battle of Grunwald 600 years ago considered the greatest battle of medieval Europe. Archaeological research in the fields of Grunwald was conducted more than fifty years, but so far found only the remains of 200 fighters. Meanwhile the excavations at Tollense found bones belonging to at least 130 fighters and all this after digging only 450 m2, ie maybe only 10% of what was yet to dig up. DNA testing teeth, revealed genetic material from Italy, Poland and Scandinavia.

Uncovering a colossal Bronze Age battle – after a series of excavations between 2009 and 2015, researchers have begun to understand the battle and its startling implications for Bronze Age society. Along a 3-kilometer stretch of the Tollense River, archaeologists from the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Department of Historic Preservation (MVDHP) and the University of tollenseGreifswald (UG) have unearthed wooden clubs, bronze spearheads, and flint and bronze arrowheads. They have also found bones in extraordinary numbers – “If our hypothesis is correct that all of the finds belong to the same event, we’re dealing with a conflict of a scale hitherto completely unknown north of the Alps,” says dig co-director Thomas Terberger, an archaeologist at the Lower Saxony State Service for Cultural Heritage in Hannover. “There’s nothing to compare it to.” It may even be the earliest direct evidence—with weapons and warriors together—of a battle this size anywhere in the ancient world. Historical accounts from the Near East and Greece described epic battles, but few artifacts remained to corroborate these boastful accounts. “Even in Egypt, despite hearing many tales of war, we never find such substantial archaeological evidence of its participants and victims,” UCD’s Molloy says. In 2013, geomagnetic surveys revealed evidence of a 120-meter-long bridge or causeway stretching across the valley. Radiocarbon dating showed that although much of the structure predated the battle by more than 500 years, parts of it may have been built or restored around the time of the battle, suggesting the causeway might have been in continuous ThingsTheyCarrieduse for centuries—a well-known landmark. “The crossing played an important role in the conflict. Maybe one group tried to cross and the other pushed them back,” Terberger says. “The conflict started there and turned into fighting along the river.” Chemical tracers in the remains suggest that most of the Tollense warriors came from hundreds of kilometers away.
DNA from teeth suggests some warriors are related to modern southern Europeans and others to people living in modern-day Poland and Scandinavia. “This is not a bunch of local idiots,” says University of Mainz geneticist Joachim Burger. “It’s a highly diverse population.” As University of Aarhus’s Vandkilde puts it: “It’s an army like the one described in Homeric epics, made up of smaller war bands that gathered to sack Troy”—an event thought to have happened fewer than 100 years later, in 1184 B.C.E. That suggests an unexpectedly widespread social organization, Jantzen says. “To organize a battle like this over tremendous distances and gather all these people in one place was a tremendous accomplishment,” he says.
“They weren’t farmer-soldiers who went out every few years to brawl, these are professional fighters.” But why did so much military force converge on a narrow river Tollensetal Impressionsfrakturvalley in northern Germany? Kristiansen says this period seems to have been an era of significant upheaval from the Mediterranean to the Baltic. In Greece, the sophisticated Mycenaean civilization collapsed around the time of the Tollense battle; in Egypt, pharaohs boasted of besting the “Sea People,” marauders from far-off lands who toppled the neighboring Hittites. And not long after Tollense, the scattered farmsteads of northern Europe gave way to concentrated, heavily fortified settlements, once seen only to the south. “Around 1200 B.C.E. there’s a radical change in the direction societies and cultures are heading,” Vandkilde says. “Tollense fits into a period when we have increased warfare everywhere.” Tollense looks like a first step toward a way of life that is with us still. From the scale and brutality of the battle to the presence of a warrior class wielding sophisticated weapons, the events of that long-ago day are linked to more familiar and recent conflicts. “It could be the first evidence of a turning point in social organization and warfare in Europe,” Vandkilde says.

Where did Bronze Age people get the tin needed to forge and smelt the dark yellow metal that gives the period its name? The BRONZEAGETIN project, funded by the EU’s European Research Council (ERC), is able to perform such measurements because of a recent tool: plasma source mass spectrometry.  (2,340,800€)


“The transition to today’s arid climate was not gradual, but occurred in two specific episodes. The first, which was less severe, occurred between 6,700 and 5,500 years ago. The second, which was brutal, lasted from 4,000 to 3,600 years ago. Summer temperatures increased sharply, and precipitation decreased, according to carbon-14 dating. This event devastated ancient civilizations and their socio-economic systems.”[15]
Cultures that rely on nomadic herding, where the livestock may be moved around to greener pastures freely, survive much better in arid regions than cultures that have permanent settlements that are based on subsistence farming techniques. With verified evidence that Kurgan pastoralists were living cheek-to-jowl with the Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements throughout their entire region for many centuries before the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, it is becoming very difficult to support Gimbutas’ claim of a military conquest of a peaceful civilization. Rather, it is much more believable and logical to conclude that the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian society that were facing starvation by farming their dry and barren plots of depleted soil chose instead to take up the practice of their neighbors, and became pastoralists instead.
However, as stated earlier, it is still very important to keep in mind that the Vinca / Cucuteni-Trypillian culture managed to thrive for thousands of years without any concept of warfare, and produced one of the most sophisticated civilizations of its time. As the Indo-Europeans continued to move through the former lands of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture and on to spread across the entire landscape of Europe and beyond, they carried with them the genetic lineage of the Cucuteni-Trypillian people. Today, this genetic line makes up a significant contribution to the European DNA code. In other words, the people of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture did not die out, but their descendants are still very much alive and thriving to this day, and are spread across the entire world.–Trypillian_culture



R1b1b2 is thought to have arrived in central and western Europe around 2500 BCE, by going up the Danube from the Black Sea coast. The archeological and genetic evidence (distribution of R1b subclades) point at several consecutive waves towards the Danube between 2800 BCE and 2300 BCE – beginning of the Unetice culture. It is interesting to note that this also corresponds to the end of the Maykop culture (2500 BCE) and Kemi Oba culture (2200 BCE) on the northern shores of the Black Sea, and their replacement by cultures descended from the northern steppes. It can therefore be envisaged that the (mostly) R1b population from the northern half of the Black Sea migrated westward due to pressure from other Indo-European people (R1a) from the north, like the burgeoning Proto-Indo-Iranian branch, linked to the contemporary Poltavka and Abashevo cultures. It is undeniable that the following Unetice (2300-1600 BCE), Tumulus (1600-1200 BCE), Urnfield (1300-1200 BCE) and Hallstatt (1200-750) cultures were linked to the spread of R1b to Europe, as they abruptly introduce new technologies and a radically different lifestyle. herebedragons/y-dna


Unetice R1b is associated with the diffusion of Proto-Germanic and Proto-Celto-Italic speakers. Emergence of chiefdoms. Long-distance trade in bronze, amber, faience and gold prestige goods. Widespread use of bronze. Gold, copper and bronze objects include torcs, flat axes, halberds, flat triangular daggers, bracelets with spiral-ends, disk- and paddle-headed pins and curl rings. Coarse pottery typically decorated with twisted cord impressions, and sometimes with other types of impressions or incisions. The dead were inhumed in flat graves or in barrows/tumuli for richer burials. Corpses were accompanied by ceramic vessels, jewellery, personal items made of bronze or bone, and occasionally flint tools. Coffins were sometimes used.


Little is known about the arrival of Proto-Greek speakers from the steppes. The Mycenaean culture commenced circa 1650 BCE and is clearly an imported steppe culture. The close relationship between Mycenaean and Proto-Indo-Iranian languages suggest that they split fairly late, some time between 2500 and 2000 BCE. Archeologically, Mycenaean chariots, spearheads, daggers and other bronze objects show striking similarities with the Seima-Turbino culture (c. 1900-1600 BCE) of the northern Russian forest-steppes, known for the great mobility of its nomadic warriors (Seima-Turbino sites were found as far away as Mongolia). It is therefore likely that the Mycenaean descended from Russia to Greece between 1900 and 1650 BCE, where they intermingled with the locals to create a new unique Greek culture.

mycenae05The Mycenaeans, or Achaeans, had invaded the Greek mainland between 1900 BC and 1600 BC, and the term Achaeans was sometimes used to refer to all Greeks of this period. The center of their culture was Mycenae, which flourished from about 1500 to 1100 BC. Before 1400 BC the Mycenaeans conquered the Minoans. The war against Troy took place in the 13th or early 12th century BC

erzbrghungaryslavi si celtiRecap: 4000-3500BCE. Most of Europe is basically I2 plus the layers of E/J/G who brought agriculture from the Middle East. N of Black Sea, the steppe is “red” R1b, further north the forests are “yellow” R1a. Old Europe is thriving, the melting pot between Cucuteni, Yamna and Maykop is where all the technologies and genes are giving birth to the Aryan mix – agriculture and first metal technology from Cucuteni (via Vinca), horses and chariots from the steppes plus the new metal technologies from the Caucaz. R1b enters Europe on the shores of the Black Sea, in the E of present day Romania – Hamagia Culture.
Before 2500BC Eastern and Central Europe plus the North of Europe invaded and dominated by R1A who are pushing also down R1b Maykop culture. Expansion of Yamna into Corded Ware Culture in all Europe except Megalithic I2 culture in Western Europe.
R1b pushed down (south) by R1a is going W through the S of the Black Sea and up on the Danube to Central Europe. First base of R1b in Europe is Transylvania!
2500-2000BCE From Transylvania R1b invades Central and Western Europe, Unetice is a mix of R1a and R1b, Bell Beaker in W Eu is a mix of I2&R1b.
2000-1500BCE – R1a expands again to W and S: Tezciniec culture pushes W the boundary between R1a/R1b domination, proto Greek & Macedonians & Thracians go down from N/Central Eu to Balkans & Greece.
After 1500BCE R1b founds a new power base in Erzberg region, the metal mines and trades gives them wealth, power and military superiority. They thrive and start the huge expansion E, W and S. They totally dominate Western and Central Europe, they invade Greece. So first “Greeks” were “Afrikans” E-V13 and J1/2 “Asians”, second wave of “Greeks” the Mycenians were “Slavs” ie R1a and finnally the last wave of “Greeks” the Dorians were “Celts” R1b.  Smile This huge wave of R1b expansion with the Hallstatt epicenter wipe out all Middle East, invade the Levant and Egypt (the Sea People) but they go over Thrace and can not invade E of Europe (Lusatian Culture). And also go over the N of Greece and Macedonia hence the difference between R1a Macedonians and R1b Spartans.

In all this time “Dacia/Romania” remains with the majority of the tufalaupopulation with I2, plus the R1a&R1b mix, up to present day. Transylvania is more “red”, the future base of Dacians is similar with the Erzeberg R1b base of the Hallstatt culture, it is based on the mines and metal workshops in the Transylvanian mountains  (“Rosia Montana” gold).



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The African DNA of Europe E-V13 In 1975, the mummy of Ramesses II was taken to France for preservation. Professor Pierre-Fernand Ceccaldi, the chief forensic scientist at the Criminal Identification Laboratory of Paris. determined that: “the hair of Ramses II, astonishingly preserved, showed complementary data about pigmentation: he was a fair-skinned person with Red hair – cymnotriche leucoderma.”
Forensic artists and physical anthropologists from Egypt, France, nefertitiand the United States independently created busts of Tutankhamun, using a CT-scan of the skull. Although modern technology can reconstruct Tutankhamun’s facial structure with a high degree of accuracy, determining his skin tone and eye color is impossible. The cranial cavity indicated an African, while the nose opening suggested narrow nostrils, which is usually considered to be a European characteristic.
The race and skin color of Cleopatra, has also caused frequent debate. Scholars generally identify Cleopatra as of Greek and Persian ancestry, based on fact that her Greek Macedonian family had intermingled with the Persian aristocracy of the time.
iGENEA was able to reconstruct the Y-DNA profile of Tutankhamun, his father Akhenaten and his grandfather Amenhotep III with the help of a recording of the Discovery Channel. The astonishing result is that Tutankhamun belongs to the haplogroup R1b1a2, which more than 50% of all men in Western Europe belong to.”

 Following the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12,000 years ago, European hunter-gatherers recolonised the continent from the Ice Age refugia in southern Europe. The vast majority of Mesolithic Europeans would have belonged to Y-haplogroup I. This included I*, pre-I1, I1, I2*, I2a*, I2a2, but the most widespread appears to have been I2a1, which was found in most parts of Europe. Northeast Europeans would have belonged mostly to haplogroup R1a.

Archaeologist Manfred Bietak conducted extensive research on ancient Greek civilizations and their connections to ancient Egypt. Bietak unearthed evidence from artwork as early as 7000 B.C. that depicts the early people inhabiting Greece were of African descent. The Minoan culture of Ancient Greece reached its peak at about 1600 B.C. They were known for their vibrant cities, opulent palaces and established trade connections. Minoan artwork is recognized as a major era of visual achievement in art history. Pottery, sculptures and frescoes from the Minoan Bronze age grace museum displays all over the world. Palace ruins indicate remnants of paved roads and piped water systems.

Many scholars have concluded that the founders of the first Mesopotamian civilization were Black Sumerians. Mesopotamia was the Biblical land of Shinar (Sumer), which sprung up around 3000 B.C. After deciphering the cuneiform script and researching ancient Mesopotamia for many years Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895) discovered that the founders of the civilization were of Kushite (Cushite) origin. He made it clear that the Semitic speakers of Akkad and the non-Semitic speakers of Sumer were both Black people who called themselves sag-gig-ga or “Black Heads.”
John Baldwin wrote in his book “PreHistoric Nations” (1869): “The early colonists of Babylonia were of the same race as the inhabitants of the Upper Nile.” This was corroborated by other scholars including, Chandra Chakaberty, who asserted in his book “A Study in Hindu Social Polity” that “based on the statuaries and steles of Babylonia, the Sumerians were “of dark complexion – chocolate colour, short stature, but of sturdy frame, oval face, stout nose, straight hair, full head; they typically resembled the Dravidians, not only in cranium, but almost in all the details.”

Haplogroup-E1b1b The Sahara changed many times from a lush green place to a hot and arid desert in the last 20,000 years. It was as arid as today at the end of the last Ice Age 13,000 years ago, then the warming climate brought tropical monsoons again from 10,000 to 7,000 years before present. The desertification taking place today started around 6,200 years ago. This series of severe transformations of their environment surely had a tremendous effect on the indigenous (E1b1b) people, causing populations booms during the green millennia following the Last Glacial Maximum, then again during the Neolithic period, and prompting migrations to milder climes once the rain had gone. The region most affected by the desertification would have been around modern Libya. The northern Maghreb enjoys the protection of the mountains that stopped the advance of the desert. Egypt had the Nile and its delta. As a result, if desertification did prompt North Africans to cross the Mediterranean at one time or another, they would most probably have crossed to Sicily first.
A strong argument in favour of E1b1b crossing directly from North Africa to southern Italy is that South Italians have more African admixture than people in the Balkans, Greece or Anatolia. This is true of the Northwest African admixture and theEast African (Red sea) admixture. Another argument is that E1b1b has never been found among the dozens of Neolithic Y-DNA samples in the Balkans or Central Europe.
The Neoltihic farmers who migrated from the Levant to the Balkans would have brought mostly Southwest Asian admixture and apparently exclusively Y-haplogroup G2a. Many Neolithic sites yielded an occasional “outsider” to the G2a majority, but these were lineages (C1a2, F, I1, I2) that are thought to belong to assimilated (or enslaved) Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. That was very probably the case with E-V13 in Catalonia too.
E-V13The hypothesis of E1b1b settling in Mediterranean Europe since the Late Paleolithic or Mesolithic would also explain:

  • 1)…why South Italians and Iberians are remarkably dolichocephaliclong-headed like North Africans, while North Italians, who are more of Italo-Celtic descent are quite brachycephalic – broad-headed like Central Europeans, Eastern Europeans and West Asians. A direct migration from North Africa to South Italy would have resulted not only in higher African admixture in South Italians, but also in a similar morphology. The Greeks are intermediary because they would have been blended with broad-headed West Asian Neolithic farmers G2a and later Bronze Age invaders (Indo-European R1a and R1b, but also Anatolian J2). Further north in the Balkans, the Mediterranean dolicocephalic type were supplanted by the Eastern European, Central Asian and West Asian brachycephalic type over time due to the numerous migrations to the region.
  • 2)…the almost complete absence of other Paleolithic lineage (notably I2) from southern and central Italy, except in Sardinia, which was presumably not settled by Paleolithic North Africans due to its distance from the nearest coast. It would rather have been settled through Corsica from North Italy by Central European hunter-gatherers (I2a1). The modern Sardinian population distinguishes itself by its higher frequency of non-Mediterranean Mesolithic ancestry (such as WHG) but the nearly complete absence of East African admixture. Sardinia is also the only region of Italy which almost doesn’t have any E-V13.

Nowadays E1b1b is the only Mediterranean haplogroup consistently found throughout Europe, even in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Baltic countries, which are conspicuous by the absence of other Neolithic haplogroups like G2a (bar the Indo-European G2a3b1), J1 and T (except in Estonia). However, since G2a is the only lineage that was consistently found in all Neolithic sites tested to date in Europe, the absence of Neolithic G2a lineages from Scandinavia and the Baltic implies that no Neolithic lineage survives there, and consequently E1b1b (mostly E-V13) does not date from the Neolithic in the region. It could easily have been brought by the Indo-European invasions during the Bronze Age, as a minority lineage picked up in Southeast Europe by the R1b tribes before they made their way to Central Europe and eventually Scandinavia. At present the most consistent explanation is that E-M78 was indigenous to southern Europe in the Mesolithic, and was assimilated by G2a farmers, then by R1b Indo-Europeans. There is in fact a very low diversity among E-V13 in central and north-east Europe, which is consistent with a relatively recent (Bronze to Iron Age) dispersal from a common source.

E-M81 in Iberia: Neolithic or Phoenician?
Two alternative time frames can be envisaged for the entry of E-M81 to Iberia. The first possibility is that E-M81 was assimilated by North African herders during the Neolithic. Cattle were probably domesticated in West Asia around 8,500 BCE by R1b tribes. The southern branch, R1b-V88 propagated from the Fertile Crescent into Egypt and across North Africa. Archeology shows that cattle herders reached Lybia by 5,500 BCE and Algeria by 4,500 BCE. Goats were domesticate around the same time as cattle in West Asia, but probably by carriers of haplogroup J1 and T1a. Various groups would have spread in all directions from the Near East, including to North Africa. Thus, at least two separate groups of Neolithic herders would have arrived in the Maghreb and mixed with local E1b1b populations. This new lifestyle could have been the factor that prompted the sudden expansion of E-M81 lineages. The resulting population  increase (a mix of R1b, J1 & E-M81) would have encouraged goat and cattle herders to seek new pastures in Iberia, which they could have done sometime between 4,000 and 3,000 BCE.

Cumulatively, some E-M81 lineages could have settled in Iberia when the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians were actively trading between both sides of the West Mediterranean, a period that spans one full millennium (c. 1200-146 BCE). The Phoenicians were known to trade as far north as the British Isles, and may have had trading posts along the coast of Portugal, Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria, which would have brought a mixture of Near Eastern (J1, J2, E-M34, T, G2a) and Berber (E-M84, R1b-V88) lineages to the region, as is observed today.
The Phoenicians possessed a variety of paternal lineages reflecting the complex ancient history of the Middle East. One of them was E-M34, which makes up about 15% of modern Lebanese Y-DNA, but was probably a higher before the Greek, Roman, Arabic, Byzantine, medieval crusader and Ottoman occupations. E-M34 is the main Middle Eastern variety of E1b1b and is thought to have arrived with the Proto-Semitic people in the Late Copper to Early Bronze Age. The Phoenicians would have spread E-M34 to Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Ibiza and southern Iberia.

E-M78 is the most common variety of haplogroup E among Europeans and Near Easterners. E-M78 is divided into 4 main branches : E1b1b1a1 (E-V12), E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), E1b1b1a3 (E-V22) and E1b1b1a4 (E-V65), each subdivided in further subclades.

E-V13 is clearly linked to the Thessalian Neolithic and its offshoots, such as the Linear Pottery (LBK) culture. It was also part of the Cardium Pottery Culture, as attested by the 7000-year-old E-V13 sample from Catalonia, which belonged to that culture. E-V13 also seems to have spread the Neolithic to the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Iran, but could have bypassed Syria, where it isn’t found, except in Assyria and Kurdistan.
The Kurds have the highest percentage of E-V13 in the Middle East. They also have have high percentages of I2a1b and R1a, which makes me think that they could be descended from the Thracians or a relative tribe from the region of Romania or Bulgaria. Or at least it would mean that a Thracian-related tribe settled in what is now Kurdistan, probably long before the actual Kurds arrived. Maybe the Cimmerians are the source they invaded that (Kurd) area of the mid east around 2,600-2,800ybp according to Herodotus they lived around Ukriane and Russia north of the black sea were I2a1b is pretty popular. Cimmerians appeared like an Iranian group which showed strong connections to Thracians. Almost like the bridge between Iranians and Thracians.
The very even dispersal show an ancient origin. Looks like they were involved in farming from the beginning. E-V13, G2a and I2a are European groups. E-V13 IS European because that particular mutation took place in southeastern Europe, but it’s parent E-M78 probably originated somewhere near the Egyptian/Sudan frontier and spread across much of Libya, Egypt, Somalia, Ethiopia. E-V13 is European, with parent from North East Africa. G2a (the one observed in Europe) is European parent from Caucaz. I2a is European with parent I2 the most European haplogrouop in the world. Germanic and Celtic R1b is European with parent from Anatolia and great parent from Central Asia! E-V13 is massively “European” in its distribution, some sub clade of it made it all the way into the western Mediterranean with the Neolithic. It is also clear from many papers that the extremely high Balkan frequencies stem from a founder effect and then a large expansion in relatively more recent times.
Gypsies are not big in E-V13, some have it due to drift. Bulgarians, Serbs, Macedonians and Albanians slept with Gypsy women and majority of the children 99+ were raised as Gypsies. E-V13 has nothing to do with Egypt itself, its father M78 has. Gypsies are mostly H1a the second biggest being I1 (a mystery who have sex with them to give it to them, maybe Hungarians and Austrians), I2a, J2a4b and E-V13. Just like between 0.5-2% of the Eastern European have Gypsy H, just like 30-40% of the Gypsies have European I1, I2a and E-V13. Also majority of Gypsies in the Balkan come from Central and West Europe, because they were used as slaves there and the Ottomans treated them better. They are from India, then they went to Iran, then some went to Egypt yes.

  • E-V22 is found primarily in western Ethiopia, northern Egypt and in the southern Levant. In Europe it is therefore associated with the Phoenicians and the Jews. The Phoenicians could have disseminated E-V22 to Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain and the Maghreb, and the Jews to Greece and mainland Italy and Spain. However, V22 might have been found among Mesolithic South Europeans like V13.
  • E-V12 is the most common subclade of M78 in southern Egypt – over 40% of the population, while its V32 subclade is the dominant paternal lineage in Somalia, southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. The moderate presence of V12* in the Near East and across Europe (except Nordic countries) indicates that it could have been a minor Mesolithic South European lineage accompanying E-V13. Its V32 subclade has not been found outside Northeast Africa.
  • E-V65 is found chiefly in North Africa, with a maximum frequency (20-30%) observed in Lybia, Tunisia and northern Morocco.

e1 Expansion of E-V13 explained E-V13 is the main European clade of haplogroup E. It has been variously interpreted as a signature of early Balkan Bronze Age, or Mesolithic, the Greek colonization of Southern Italy, Greek ancestry in some Pakistanis, or Roman soldiers of Balkan origin in Britain. A proper understanding of its age would help resolve the problem of its origins. The age and distribution of E-V13 chromosomes suggest that expansions of the Greek world in the Bronze and later ages were the major causes of its diffusion.

The acclaimed theoretical physicist Albert Einstein is presumed to have belonged to Y-haplogroup E-Z830 based on the results from a patrilineal descendant of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein, Albert Einstein’s great-grand-father. Approximately 20% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup E1b1b.
Ronny Decorte, a geneticist from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, tested relatives of Adolf Hitler and determined that the Fürher belonged to haplogroup E1b1b. Ironically this haplogroup thought to be at the origin of Afro-Asiatic languages, which includes the Semitic languages and peoples that Hitler despised so much.
Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973), the 36th President of the United States, was identified as a member of haplogroup E1b1b1 through the Johnson/Johnston/Johnstone DNA Surname Project.

  • J => 30,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
  • R => 28,000 years ago (in the Central Asia)
  • E1b1b => 26,000 years ago (in Northeast Africa)
  • I => 25,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • J1 => 20,000 years ago (in the Taurus/Zagros mountains)
  • J2 => 19,000 years ago (in northern Mesopotamia)
  • E-M78 => 18,000 years ago (in north-eastern Africa)
  • R1b => 18,000 years ago (around the Caspian Sea or Central Asia)
  • R1a => 17,000 years ago (in southern Russia)
  • G => 17,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
  • I2 => 17,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • E-V13 => 15,000 years ago (in the southern Levant or North Africa)
  • I2b => 13,000 years ago (in Central Europe)
  • N1c1 => 12,000 years ago (in Siberia)
  • E-M81 => 11,000 years ago (in Northwest Africa)
  • I2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • G2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Levant or Anatolia)
  • R1b1b2 => 10,000 years ago (north or south of the Caucasus)
  • I2b1 => 9,000 years ago (in Germany)
  • I2a1 => 8,000 years ago (in Southwest Europe)
  • I2a2 => 7,500 years ago (in Southeast Europe)
  • I1 => 5,000 years ago (in Scandinavia)
  • R1b-L21 => 4,000 years ago (in Central or Eastern Europe)
  • R1b-S28 => 3,500 years ago (around the Alps)
  • R1b-S21 => 3,000 years ago (in Frisia or Central Europe)
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7000 years of history. Ro DNA:68% Old Europe & 29.5% Kurgan

Present day Y-haplogroups in Romania:
Before Farming Ro DNA – 33%: I1-4.5%, I2/I2a-26%, I2b-2.5%
Middle East Farmers DNA – 35%: J2/J1-15%, E1b1b-15%, G-5%
Old Europe DNA – 68% : I1/2-33% + J1/E1/G – 35%
Kurgan, Celt & Slav DNA – 29.5% : R1a-17.5% + R1b-12%.
Kurgan/Celt DNA 17.5% : R1a-17.5%
Kurgan/Slav DNA – 12%: R1b-12%
African DNA: E-V13  E1b1b1a2  15%

12.000BC-6000BC – I1/2 before farmers
6000BC-5000BC – J1/2,E1b1,G bring farming from Middle Asia

6500-2000 BC Burned house horizon

5508 BC Anno Mundi – the biblical creation of the world
5700-4500 BC Vinca Culture
5500-2750 BC Cucuteni Culture

4400-4300BC First Kurgan Wave into East-Central Europe
3500BC Second Kurgan Wave-R1b
Transformation of Central Europe
3000BC Third Kurgan Wave-Proto ItaloCelts in Transylvania/Pannonia
2000-1500BC R1a Greco-Macedonians invade ”Greece” from North
1200-1000BC R1b Hallstatt, Dorians & Sea People – First Dark Age

1000BC-82BC Iron Age Thracia/Daco-Getia
460 BC-46 AD The Odrysian Kingdom
82BC-106AD Burebista to Decebal –Magna Dacia & 
Dacian Kingdoms 
106-271 Romans defeat Decebal and have 23 wars with Free Dacians
271-376 Gutthiuda/Gothia – after the final roman retreat
376-454 The Hun Empire –  push south the Goth who destroy Rome
Start of Second Dark Age – fall of economies based on slavery caused by free people, city civilisations replaced by village economy

454-567 Gepid Kingdom
destroyed by avars in 576
Avars & Lombards
567-670 Avar Periods –
Early 567-670, Middle 670-720 & Late 720-804
First Bulgar Empire – 893-927 Simeon the Great
940-1046 Voievodatul lui Iuliu –
primul episcopat Ortodox la Alba-Iulia
1185-1396 Second Vlah-Bulgarian State
1330 Wallachia – Basarab I defeats Charles I of Hungary at Posada
1359 Moldavia –  from Transylvania
to the Dniester River


Restart of Europe after Last Ice Age-I Haplogroup 25 kyr continuity,  I2a-Vinca&Cucuteni-9000bc, I2-Urnfield. I-Italic tribes, Maps of Neolithic Cultures–The Romanian Etnogenesis *1 -‘Latin’ languages have I origin. Palaeolithic Europe 18,000 years ago was in the grip of the last ice age. Glacial ice 2km thick covered much of Northern Europe and the Alps. Sea levels were approx. 125m lower. By 12,000 Y BP the ice has retreated and the land became much more supportive to life. During the last 8 000 years, the climate has been much the same as today. Northern regions were generally re-colonised from the Iberian and Balkan refugia, and Italian lineages were often isolated because of the Alpine barrier. 

12.000BC-6000BC most population in Europa was I1/2.During the last 8 000 years, the climate has been much the same as today. Northern regions were generally re-colonised from the Iberian and Balkan refugia, and Italian lineages were often isolated because of the Alpine barrier. 

6000BC-5000BC – J1/2,E1b1,G bring farming from Middle Asia. 


6500-2000 BC Burned house horizonThis was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what is now Southeastern and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6,500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). A notable representative of this tradition is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which was centered on the burned-house horizon both geographically and temporally.

mtDNA H5 –


5508 BC Facerea Lumii după Calendarul Vechi – Pisania bisericii Sf. Nicolae din Bălineşti din anul 7007. Era bizantină, întâlnită adesea sub forma de ani de la facerea/zidirea lumii sau ani de la Adam, a fost cronologia folosită oficial în Imperiul Bizantin şi în bisericile ortodoxe, începând din anul 691 d.Hr. până în 1728.


The first Great Civilizations of Europe: Cucuteni–Trypillia 5000–3000 BC + Vinca 6-3millennium BC = I2a in Haplogroup I 
5700–4500 BC Cultura Vinca, 5500-2750 BC Cultura Cucuteni, The New York Times-A Lost European Culture; Vlassa-Tartaria, Striga istoria sub noi, oameni buni!

5508BC: An equal mix of hunters I1/2 (50%) and farmers J1/2+E1b1+G (50%) start The Old Europe Era.   Present day Romania, the turntable of Old Europe
Europe before the Kurgan waves. R1a-N of Black Sea, R1b-E of Black Sea. NW of Europe-mostly I1/2, S of Europe-arrival of J/E/G farmers.


4400BC-4300BC The First Kurgan Wave into East-Central EuropeDisplacement and Amalgamation of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinca, and Lengyel Cultures. Emergence of Kurgan Elements in the Milieu of the LBK Culture.


3500BC – The Second Kurgan Wave – the Transformation of Central Europe After the Middle of the 4th Millennium BC. The Source: The North Pontic Maikop Culture with its superior metalurgy. An Amalgam of Kurgan and Cucuteni Traditions: The Usatovo Complex Northwest of the Black Sea.

Kurgan-Influenced Cultures in East-Central Europe: The Baden-Vucedol and Ezero Groups.

3000BC Third Kurgan Wave-Proto ItaloCelts in Transylvania/Pannonia R1b the new metalurgy! Yamna Culture is R1a!

Old Europe – the IndoEuropean Homeland – the Aryan Urheimat

2500-2000BC Western Europe becomes CELTIC. Unetice Culture, Coțofeni, Cernavoda, Ezero, Glina., Otomani, Bubanj-Hum R1b influenced cultures.

2000-1500BC R1a Greco-Macedonians invade ”Greece” from North. Follows Great Hallstatt Culture and distruction of Mycene and of all Middle East states under by the ”Sea People” invasions.


1200-1000BC R1b Hallstatt, Dorians + Sea People & Phoenicians. The First Darg Age, the first distruction of ”civilized states” by ”free peoples”. Around 1200 BC the Sea Peoples produced the Late Bronze Age collapse.  In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.[3]Drews writes “Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again”.dark age
The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterized the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. The Sea Peoples from the north weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites respectively. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers to dominate the Medeterana. 1200Bc – The Dorian invasion of Greece ends the Mycenian culture. Expanding R1b Hallstatt Culture is probably the main wave behind the Sea Peoples and the Dorians are one of those ‘Sea Peoples’ pushed down by the The Alpine Celts. The Iron technology produced the more competitive weapons, the R1b warriors mixed with growing populations from Sardinia, Sicily, S of Italy and Anatolia destroyed all the palace empires. Egypt survived with great effort and Phoenicians were the only area NOT invaded in Levant.  Phoenicia  was the enterprising maritime trading culture the spread in Mediterana starting with 1550Bc, that dominated the Mediterranean shores from 1200BCto 300 BC, after the raids of the Sea People. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar toancient Greece. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet.

1000 BC
Iron working begins in the Balkans. RO – an I2 continuity since the Ice Age.The classical Dacian Culture – a fusion between the Old Dacians & the La Tene celts



460 BC–46 AD The Odrysian Kingdom – first unification Thracian tribes under a single ruler after the Persian defeat in Greece. Greek became the language of administrators[20] and of the nobility, the Greek alphabet was adopted. Greek customs and fashions contributed to the recasting of east Balkan society. Thracian kings were among the first to be Hellenized. Odrysian kings though called Kings of Thrace never exercised sovereignty over all of Thrace.[26] Control varied according to tribal relationships.[


Burebista 82 î.Hr.44 î.Hr. a reușit unirea triburile geto-dacice și a întemeiat statului dac. A fost ucis în urma unei revolte, regatul dac s-a destramăt în 5 părți. Centrul din jurul Munțiilor Orăștiei, a rămas sub stăpânirea lui Deceneu.


Roman Dacia 107-271 From the death of Burebista to the rise of Decebalus, Roman forces continued to clash against the Dacians and the Getae. The Romans conquered only a small part of Dacian territories, only enough to exploit the GOLD MINES from Transylvania, the rest was ruled by Free Dacians. The Dacian royal treasury captured by the Romans was of enormous value enough to boost the economy of all the empire: 500,000 pounds (226,800 kilograms) of gold and 1,000,000 pounds (453,600 kilograms) of silver.[ Crito wrote that approximately 500,000 Dacians were enslaved and deported.
Some areas were occupied after 106 by nomadic
Sarmatian tribesmen, most likely a minority ruling over the sedentary Geto-Dacian majority e.g. Muntenia, which was ruled by the Roxolani Sarmatians and possibly also northern Moldavia, which was under the Costoboci, a people of possibly Sarmatian origin. Northern Carpathians, Bukovina was shared by non-Dacian tribes: the Anartes and the Taurisci, who were probably Celtic,[8] and the Germanic Bastarnae are also attested in this region. Free Dacians are reported to have invaded and ravaged the Roman province in 214 and 218. Many emperors after Trajan, as late as AD 336, assumed the victory title of Dacicus Maximus, the titles imply ferocious wars.Aabout 10% of the imperial army‘s total regular effectives were located in Roman Dacia to defend it from Free Dacians between 106 & 275.
In 167 when the Iazyges, having been thrust out of Pannonia, focused their energies on Dacia and took the gold mines at
Alburnus Maior (modern Roşia Montană, Romania).[74] The suburban villas at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa were burned, and the camp at Slăveni was destroyed by the Marcomanni.[54] By the time Marcus Aurelius reached Aquileia in 168 AD, the Iazyges had taken over 100,000 Roman captives. Between 106 & 271 the Romans had 23 wars with tribes coming from unoccupied Dacia.
In 180, the emperor Commodus, whose reign lasted from 180 to 92, is recorded as having admitted 12,000 “neighbouring Daci”, who had been driven out of their own territory by hostile tribes, for settlement in the Roman province. The latest secure mention of the Free Dacians in the ancient sources is Constantine I’s acclamation as Dacicus Maximus in 336. For the year 381, the Byzantine chronicler Zosimus records an invasion over the Danube by a barbarian coalition of Huns, Scirii & Karpodakai, or Carpo-Dacians a term which  most likely means the “Dacians of the Carpathians”.
230s saw the end of the final peaceful period experienced in Roman Dacia. After 239 the empire was forced to buy peace in Moesia, paying an annual tribute to the Goths.

2016-01-10 (1) 
In the years immediately after the withdrawal, Roman towns survived, albeit on a reduced level. The previous tribes which had settled north of the Danube, such as the Sarmatians, Bastarnae, Carpi, and Quadi were increasingly pressured by the arrival of the Vandals in the north, while the Gepids and the Goths pressured them from the east and the northeast.[226] This forced the older tribes to push into Roman territory, weakening the empire’s already stretched defences further. To gain entry into the empire, the tribes alternated between beseeching the Roman authorities to allow them in, and intimidating them with the threat of invasion if their requests were denied.[226] Ultimately, the Bastarnae were permitted to settle in Thrace, while the Carpi which survived were permitted to settle in the new province of Pannonia Valeria west of their homeland.[225] However, the Carpi were neither destroyed by other barbarian tribes, nor fully integrated into the Roman imperium. Those who survived on the borders of the empire were apparently called Carpodacae (“Carps from Dacia”).
By 291 AD the Goths had recovered from their defeat at the hands of Aurelian, and began to move into what had been Roman Dacia.[230] When the ancestors of the Tervingi migrated into north-eastern Dacia, they were opposed by the Carpi and the non-Romanized Dacians. Defeating these tribes, they came into conflict with the Romans, who still attempted to maintain control along the Danube. By 295 AD, the Goths had managed to defeat the Carpi and establish themselves in Dacia, now called Gothia;[231] the Romans recognised the Tervingi as a Foederatus.[232] They occupied what was the eastern portion of the old province and beyond, from Bessarabia on the Dniester in the east to Oltenia in the west.[233] Until the 320s the Goths kept the terms of the treaty and proceeded to settle down in the former province of Dacia, and the Danube had a measure of peace for nearly a generation.[232]Gutthiudadecline_rome_visigoths2000px-Reino_de_los_visigodos-en.svg

271-376 Gutthiuda the country of Visigoths. Roman wars in Dacia : with Goths, Taifali, Bastarns and the Carpi in 248–250, with Carpi and Goths in 258 & 263, with the Goths and Heruli in 267 & 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus 253–268, the final official retreat was done by Aurelian in 270–275. The name Visigothi is an invention of Cassiodorus, other names for other Gothic divisions abounded. They were “the most formidable military power beyond the lower Danube frontier.” After they left Dacia in 376 they crushed the Roman Empire twice before establishing the Visigoth Kingdom in Hispania and Gallia. The Goth started their migration PUSHED by the HUNS.

376-454 The Hun Empire Huns & Goths start the Second ”Dark Age” – Roman ”Civilization” destroyed by ”barbarians”, fall of economies based on slavery caused by free people, city culture replaced by village economy. The Huns were “a confederation of warrior bands”, ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attila‘s rule, including very many speakers of Gothic, which some modern scholars describe as a lingua franca of the Empire. The Romans realized the presence of the Huns when their invasions of the Pontic steppes forced the Goths to move to the Lower Danube to seek refuge in the Roman Empire in 376. Attila the Hun died in 453, the empire broke up the next year.
The Huns first invaded the land of the
Alans – a Scythian people, which was located to the east of the Don River, slaughtering many of them and forcing the survivors to submit or to flee across the Don. After they subjugated the Alans, the Huns and their Alan auxiliaries started plundering the wealthy settlements of the Greuthungi, or eastern Goths
, to the west of the Don. After a while most Greuthungi submitted himself to the Huns. Those who decided to resist marched to the Dniester River which was the border between the lands of the Greuthungi and the Thervingi, or western Goths.[51] They were under the command of Alatheus and Saphrax. Athanaric, the leader of the Thervingi, met the refugees along the Dniester at the head of his troops.[49]However, a Hunnic army bypassed the Goths and attacked them from the rear, forcing Athanaric to retreat towards the Carpathian Mountains.[49] Most Thervingi realized that they could not resist the Huns.[53] They went to the Lower Danube, requesting asylum in the Roman Empire.[53][54] The Greuthingi under the leadership of Alatheus and Saphrax also marched to the river.[53] Most Roman troops had been transferred from the Balkan Peninsula to fight against the Sasanid Empire in Armenia.[55] Emperor Valens permitted the Thervingi to cross the Lower Danube and to settle in the Roman Empire in the autumn of 376.[56][57] The Thervingi were followed by the Greuthingi, and also by the Taifali and “other tribes that formerly dwelt with the Goths and Taifali” to the north of the Lower Danube, according to Zosimus.[56] Food shortage and abuse stirred the Goths to revolt in early 377.[54][58] The ensuing war between the Goths and the Romans lasted for more than five years.
As early as 380, a group of Huns was given Foederati status and allowed to settle in Pannonia. In 395 the Huns began their first large-scale attack on the Eastern Roman Empire.[62] Huns attacked in Thrace, overran Armenia, and pillaged Cappadocia. They entered parts of Syria, threatened Antioch, and swarmed through the province of Euphratesia.

454-567 Gepidia – After the Battle of Nedao, the Hunnic Empire disintegrated and the Gepids became the dominant power in the eastern regions of the Carpathian Basin.RomaniaGepid_kingdom_6th_centuryFor more than a millennium, the state that we call now inaccurately the Byzantine Empire, was named “Romania” – 41 de împărați au fost de origine traco-daca.


Avar Khaganate Early Avar Period 580-670, Middle 670-720 & Late 720-804 Avar periodsPushed by Göktürks avars allied with Bulgars and moved West. By 562 the Avars controlled the lower Danube basin and the steppes north of the Black Sea. By the time they arrived in the Balkans, the Avars formed a heterogeneous group of about 20,000 horsemen. In 567 the Avars with the Lombards destroyed much of the Gepid Kingdom. By about 580, Bayan I established supremacy over most of Pannonia and Carpathian Basin. Sacked Dalmatia in 568, captured Sirmium. In 626, the sieged Constantinople  with SassanidsIn the 630s slavs broke away under Samo, the ruler of the first historically known Slavic Tribal Union. By 670, the Khazars had broken the unity of the Bulgar confederation, causing their relocatin to the west. The Onogur-Bulgars, led by Khan Asparukh settled permanently along the Danube (c. 679-681), expanding the First Bulgarian Empire. Although the Avar empire had diminished to half its original size, the new Avar-Slav alliance consolidated their rule west from the central parts of the mid-Danubian basin and extended their sphere of influence west to the Viennese Basin. The Avars’ power base remianed in Pannonia, most of the Balkans now lay in the hands of Slavic tribes since neither the Avars nor Byzantines were able to reassert control. The Khaganate in the Middle and Late periods was a product of cultural symbiosis between Slavic and original Turkic elements with a Slavic language as a lingua franca or the most common language. In the 7th century, the Avar Khaganate opened a door for Slavic demographic and linguistic expansion to Adriatic and Aegean regions. A series of Frankish campaigns in the 790s led by Charlemagne ended with the conquest of the Avar realm, taking most of Pannonia up to the Tisza River. Avar occupation was ended when a Slavic-Croatian force led by prince Vojnomir and supported by the Franks launched a counterattack in 791. Charlemagne won another major victory against the Avars in 796. The Franks baptized many Avars and integrated them into the Frankish Empire. In 804, the First Bulgarian Empire conquered the southeastern Avar lands of Transylvania and southeastern Pannonia up to the Middle Danube River, and many Avars became subjects of the Bulgarian Empire. The Avars mixing with the more numerous populations they used to rule, vanished in an arc of three generations.


In ~660, the Khazars, another federated people freed from the yoke of the Western Turkic Khaganate, attacked Bulgaria from the east and captured Phanagoria and its Black Sea holdings up to the Dnieper. The ”destruction” of Old Great Bulgaria and the scattering of the four brothers may in fact have been the Khazars merely conquering an important part of the country and severing the territorial links between its outlying provinces. So Asparukh inherited, rather than wandered into, the lands north of the Danube after the death of his father, and his brother Kotrag inherited, rather than reaching, what would later become Volga Bulgaria. bulgaria

Descendenţa din Asăneşti a Regelui Ferdinand I al României, Moscopole – oraș vlah – cel mai mare oras din Balcani in sec.18


Slavii /tracii in Balcani – dupa toponime si hidronime, N.BALCESCU: De la Bucuresti la Constantinopol numai vorba romaneasca!


681-1018 Primul imperiu ”bulgar”. 893-927 Simeon the Great.


1185-1396 al doilea Țarat Vlaho-Bulgar înființat de Petru și Asan.


940 – 1046 Voievodatul lui Iuliu, prima Catedrala Ortodoxă din ţara noastră la Alba Iulia  – Cronică Românească de Istorie Veche, autor Cornel Birsan. Ultrasilvana un regnum latissimum et opulentissimum

1330 Wallachiawas under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until approximately the Magyar conquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century. With the decline and subsequent fall of the first Bulgarian state to Byzantium (in the second half of the 10th century up to 1018), Wallachia came under the control of the Pechenegs who extended their rule west through the 10th and 11th century, until defeated around 1091, when the Cumans of southern Russia took control of the lands of Wallachia.
Beginning with the 10th century, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and later Western sources mention the existence of small entities led by knyazes and voivodes.
In 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, Cuman domination was ended—a direct Mongol rule over Wallachia was not attested, but it remains probable. Part of Wallachia was probably briefly disputed by the Hungarian Kingdom and Bulgarians in the following period, but it appears that the severe weakening of Hungarian authority during the Mongol attacks contributed to the establishment of the new and stronger polities attested in Wallachia for the following decades.
One of the first written pieces of evidence of local voivodes is in connection with Litovoi (1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Hațeg Country in Transylvania), and refused to pay tribute to the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. His successor was his brother Bărbat (1285–1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285–1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynasty opened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and to independence from Hungarian rule.
Wallachia’s creation, held by local traditions to have been the work of one Radu Negru (Black Radu), is historically connected with Basarab I (1310–1352), who rebelled against Charles I of Hungary and took up rule on either side of the Olt River, establishing his residence in Câmpulung as the first ruler in the House of Basarab. Basarab refused to grant Hungary the lands of Făgăraș, Almaş and the Banat of Severin, defeated Charles in the Battle of Posada (1330), and extended his lands to the east, to comprise lands as far as Kilia (in the Bujak), as the origin of Bessarabia);[11] rule over the latter was not preserved by the princes that followed, as Kilia fell to the Nogais ca.1334. Basarab was succeeded by Nicolae Alexandru, followed by Vladislav I. Vladislav attacked Transylvania after Louis I occupied lands south of the Danube, conceded to recognize him as overlord in 1368, but rebelled again in the same year; his rule also witnessed the first confrontation between Wallachia and the Ottoman Turks (a battle in which Vladislav was allied with Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria).[13] Under Radu I and his successor Dan I, the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary.

1359 Moldavia – The medieval Principality of Moldavia was established in 1359 and covered the so-called CarpathianDanubeDniester area, stretching from Transylvania in the west to the Dniester River in the east. The foundation of Moldavia is attributed to the Vlach noblemen Dragoş of Bedeu, from Maramureş, who had been ordered in 1343 (1285 after other sources [5]) by the Hungarian king to establish a defense for the historic Kingdom of Hungary against the Tatars, and Bogdan I of Cuhea, Maramureș, who became the first independent prince of Moldavia, when he rejected Hungarian authority in 1359. The greatest Moldavian personality was prince Stephen the Great, who ruled from 1457 to 1504.


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Soarele – simbol arhetipal

Soare. Căldură. Viaţă. Începutul şi sfârşitul. Soarele este simbolul arhetipal care se regăseşte în toate culturile lumii. Încă din timpurile primitive, oamenii şi-au dat seama că fără Soare nu poate exista nimic. Ei s-au închinat la Soare considerându-l  izvor al vieţii şi al morţii. Cultul astrului zilei este în centrul miturilor solare, a religiilor uranice şi a fost divinizat şi pe teritoriul ţării noastre încă din vechime.
Soarele este nemuritor, el moare la asfinţit dar învie întotdeauna dimineaţa. De aceea este întruchiparea veşniciei şi a renaşterii reprezentat cel mai des prin simboluri ce denota perpetuarea, continuitatea, infinitatea. De altfel, astrul zilei este prezentat prin simboluri specifice cum ar fi discul, discul înaripat, roata, carul, ochiul, crucea în cerc, svastica etc. şi cel mai des este asociat laturii masculine. Soarele mai este reprezentat printr-un leu, un spic de grâu, iar aurul este corespondentul acestuia intre metale şi roşu printre culori. Iar acestea sunt doar câteva dintre simbolurile atribuite de om Soarelui. Nu de puţine ori, simbolistica Soarelui a născut mistere şi a pus imaginaţia contemporanilor noştri la lucru. Din cele mai vechi timpuri, Soarele a devenit simbolul regalităţii, al dinastiilor conducătoare care la noi s-a păstrat până în zilele noastre.

Sarmizegetusa_Regia_(Grigore_Roibu)În perioada civilizaţiei pelasge, a hiperboreenilor, zeul Apollo avea închinate temple multe şi foarte mari în care marmura şi aurul erau elementele de bază ale construcţiilor. Dacii considerau Soarele ca fiind primordial, binefăcător şi dătător de viaţă, iar simbolul astrului zilei se regăsea la ei pe multe obiecte: scuturi, harnaşamente, bijuterii, coifuri etc. ”Dacii cunoşteau şi foloseau un calendar solar considerat cel mai precis din antichitate. Anul dacic avea 365,242197 zile, faţă de 365,242198 la care a ajuns astronomia modernă. Calendarul dacic de la Sarmisegetuza permitea numararea zilelor unui an cu ajutorul unor stâlpi dispuşi în formă de cerc.” Şi pentru daci totul începea de la Soare. Ei considerau că Anul Nou începe la data echinocţiului de primăvară, în luna martie, dată la care Soarele începea să recapete puteri şi ajuta natura să renască. În luna martie, odată cu revigorarea Soarelui, totul era luat de la început: anul nou, muncile agricole, tunsul oilor şi urcatul turmelor la munte, mineritul, pregătirea armatei. Practic, viaţa renăştea odată cu Soarele. În semn de respect pentru binefacerile aduse, dacii închinau Soarelui sanctuare circulare. În timp, majoritatea domnitorilor români, din toate regiunile ţării, au adoptat în blazoanele, sigiliile sau stemele lor şi simboluri ale Soarelui, acesta regăsindu-se chiar şi azi în stema României.

Soarele are o însemnătate deosebită şi în cultura populară românească. Bătrânii vorbesc şi în zilele noastre despre „Sfântul Soare”. De altfel, religia creştină abundă în simboluri şi credinţe Solare adoptate din perioada păgână. Acestea s-au suprapus şi s-au amestecat cu crezurile crucea dacicacreştine. Cel mai la-ndemână exemplu este legat de construcţia bisericilor care au altarele orientate spre Est, adică spre răsăritul Soarelui. Un alt exemplu este Crucea care, în ancestral, simboliza Soarele. Romulus Vulcănescu a scris în “Mitologie română” despre cultului solar practicat de geto-daci. El a arătat că simbolul solar era format în păgânism dintr-un cerc având o cruce înscrisă sau dintr-un cerc cu o cruce excrisă. Ultimul însemn, în care crucea depăşeşte perimetrul cercului, mai este denumită azi şi “crucea dacică” şi o putem regăsi foarte des pe sculpturile maramureşene, mai ales pe troiţe.

De asemenea, simbolurile solare sunt prezente şi în arhitectura caselor ţărăneşti. În Bucovina, Soarele este sculptat pe stâlpii, uşile şi grinzile caselor considerându-se că aduce noroc şi fereşte casa de rele. Cele mai des întâlnite simboluri sunt rozeta, cercul, punctul, roata cu crucea în ea, morişca sau rombul. Aceleaşi simboluri, dar mai des morişca, se regăsesc şi pe casele olteneşti sau transilvănene.
genereaza-img (2)Obiceiul de a sculpta simboluri solare s-a păstrat până în zilele noastre şi se regăseşte pe diverse obiecte: lazi de zestre, furci de tors, pietre funerare, unelte, tacâmuri etc. Şi, bineînţeles, strailele populare conţin broderii, iar vesela din lut picturi cu diverse simboluri ale Soarelui. Toate acestea nefiind o modă ci o moştenire străveche.

Soarele s-a păstrat prezent şi în cultura populară mai ales prin balade (balada „Soarele şi Luna”) şi legende (Legenda Ciocârliei, Legenda Florii Soarelui, Legenda Cicoarei etc). Dar foarte des se regăseşte Soarele şi în colindele populare care, majoritatea îşi au originea în perioada păgână. Cel mai răspândit obicei tradiţional de la noi legat de Soare, mărţişorul, este după cum spunea şi poetul George Coşbuc, “simbolul soarelui primaverii”. În credinţa populară, banul de argint ce se atârna de şnurul mărţişorului semnifica Soarele prin rotunjimea lui. George Coşbuc mai spunea că: “mărţişorul este un genereaza-img (3)simbol al focului şi al luminii, deci şi al soarelui. Poporul nostru îl cunoaşte şi îl ţine în mare cinste, şi îl poartă copiii, fetele şi mai rar nevestele şi flăcăii, fiindcă el e crezut ca aducător de frumuseţe şi de iubire”. Si tot in acelasi studiu mai spunea George Cosbuc : “Ţaranii pun copiilor martisoare ca sa fie curati ca argintul si sa nu-i scuture frigurile, iar fetele zic ca-l poarta ca sa nu le arda soarele si cine nu le poarta are sa se ofileasca. Poporul mai stie ca martisorul trebuie purtat ca lucru sfânt, nu asa ca podoabă ori ca jucărie.” Tot George Coşbuc ne explică de ce se poartă mărţişorul : “scopul purtării lui este să-ţi apropii soarele, purtându-i cu tine chipul cam cu acelaşi rost cum purtăm noi o cruce ori un chip al lui Hristos în sân. Printr-asta te faci prieten cu soarele, şi-l faci binevoitor să-ţi dea ce-i stă în putere, mai întâi frumuseţe ca a lui, apoi veselie şi sănătate, cinste, iubire şi curaţie de suflet.“

HORA-MAREAdorarea Soarelui se întâlneşte şi în unele dansuri populare. Cel mai bun exemplu este hora care prin dispunerea ei în cerc imită rotunjimea genereaza-img (4)Soarelui. Deşi este un dans simplu şi destul de monoton, hora este considerată sacră pentru că în ea nu sunt primiţi decât cei mai curaţi oameni. Pe vremuri, cea mai sacră horă era cea a căluşarilor, iar în ea jucau doar feciorii care nu puteau părăsi căluşul timp de 3, 5 sau 9 ani. Originile horei se trag tot din perioada când pe teritoriul ţării noastre domina cultul Soarelui. La Bodeşti-Frumuşica a fost descoperit un obiect de cult ceramic reprezentând o horă formată din şase femei, aparţinând Culturii Cucuteni (3700-2500 î.H.). Această dovadă indică faptul ca hora a apărut cu mai mult de 5000 de ani în urmă. Sursa –

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