I2a-Vinca&Cucuteni-9000bc, I1-Scandinavia-3000bc, J2-Greeks

File:Distribution Haplogroup I Y-DNA.svg

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_I_(Y-DNA) Y-DNA Haplogroup I is predominantly a European haplogroup today. It represents nearly one-fifth of the population of Europe. It can be found in the majority of present-day European populations. Haplogroup I Y-chromosomes have also been found among some populations of the Near East, the Caucasus, and Central Asia.

Distribution: The greatest density of Haplogoup I is to be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina 65% : Bosnia 54%[1], Herzegovina 71%.[1] Other higher than average densities occur in the Caucasus: Darginians of Dagestan 58% and Abkhazians 33%[8] Croatia (mainland 38%[1][9][10], Hvar 66%[9], Korcula 54%[9]), Norway 40%[10][11], Sardinia 37%[12] 42%[10], Sweden (North 26%[10], Gotland & Värmland 50%[13]),Denmark 39%[10][14], Montenegro 38%[15], Germany 38%[16] (highest frequency in Northern Germany 37.5%[6]), Serbia 36% [1](Bosnian Serbs 36%[17]), Macedonia 34%[1], Iran: in Tehran 34%, though in Isfahan only 10%,[18] Iceland 33%, and West Finland 41%, though the figure drops in East Finland to 20%[19]. Average densities occur in Albania 25% [20], Hungary 11%[6] 28%[21], Netherlands 25%, England 20%, Romania/Moldova 22%[10], though reaching 48% in Buhuşi and Piatra Neamţ.[22]

I2a1-M26 (L158, L159, M26) Typical of the population of the so-called “archaic zone” of Sardinia; also found at low frequencies among populations of Southwest Europe, particularly in Castile, Béarn, and the Basque Country

I2a2a-L69.2 (L69.2(=T)/S163.2) Typical of the Balkan populations, especially the populations of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia; also found with high frequency in Moldavia and Romania

Within Europe, several populations are distinguished by having a significantly lower frequency of Haplogroup I than the surrounding populations: Italy and Switzerland have lower levels than Germany and Sardinia, Iberia has a lower density than southern France and Normandy, Greece has a lower level than Albania and the Slavic peoples, while the Baltic-speaking Latvians have a lower level than the Finnic-speaking Estonians. In all these areas, Haplogroup I populations are small relative to the dominant haplogroups in Europe (R1b in Western Europe, R1a1 in Eastern Europe, and N in Northeastern Europe).

FileHG I1 europahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_I1_(Y-DNA) Haplogroup I-M253 (M253, M307, P30, P40) displays a very clear frequency gradient, with a peak frequency of approximately 35% among the populations of southern Norway, southwestern Sweden, and Denmark, and rapidly decreasing frequencies toward the edges of the historically Germanic-influenced world. A notable exception isFinland, where frequency in West Finns is up to 40%, and in certain provinces like Satakunta more than 50%.File:HaplogroupI2.png

Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA) Above – Distribution of HG I2a2 (M423) by region. Haplogroup I-M423 is the most frequent Y-chromosome Haplogroup I in Central and Eastern European populations, reaching its peak in theWestern Balkans, most notably in Dalmatia (50-60% [1]) and Bosnia-Herzegovina (up to 71% [17], avg. 40-50% [1]). A greater variance of this group has been found in Ireland and Great Britain, but overall frequency is very low (2-3%). Haplogroup I-M423 is virtually absent inFennoscandia, Western and Southwestern Europe.

The TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) for the I clade was estimated by File:Europe20000ya.pngKarafet and colleagues in 2008 as 22.2 k.a. (22,200 years ago) with a confidence interval between 15.3-30.0 ka.[2], placing the Haplogroup I founding event approximately contemporaneous with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) which lasted from 26.5 ka to 19 or 20 ka.[3]  Picture above : European LGM refuges, 20 kya. Violet – Solutrean and Proto Solutrean Cultures;  Orange – Epi Gravettian Culture

http://www.ask.com/wiki/Haplogroup_I1_(Y-DNA) Approximately 20,000 years ago, much of Europe was covered in ice and permafrost. People in Europe were forced south by the changing climate and topography. The European LGM refuges included the Iberian peninsula and the Balkans, where some believe the ancestors of I1 lived. The theory has been challenged recently by an opposing argument that I1 was not in existence during the LGM. Two primary cultures have been identified during this time: the Solutrean (Iberia and southern France) and the Gravettian (Balkans, Italy and Ukraine).

DNA studies have permitted to categorise all humans on Earth in genealogical groups sharing one common ancestor at one given point in prehistory. They are called haplogroups. There are two kinds of haplogroups: the paternally inherited Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups, and the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. They respectively indicate the agnatic (or patrilineal) and cognatic (or matrilineal) ancestry.

Y-DNA haplogroups are useful to determine whether two apparently unrelated individuals sharing the same surname do indeed descend from a common ancestor in a not too distant past (3 to 20 generations). This is achieved by comparing the haplotypes through the STR markers. Deep SNP testing allows to go back much farther in time, and to identify the ancient ethnic group to which one’s ancestors belonged (e.g. Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, Greco-Roman, Basque, Iberian, Phoenician, Jewish, etc.). In Europe, mtDNA haplogroups are quite evenly spread over the continent, and therefore cannot be associated easily with ancient ethnicities. However, they can sometimes reveal some potential medical conditions (see diseases associated with mtDNA mutations). Some mtDNA subclades are associated with Jewish ancestry, notably K1a1b1a, K1a9,d K2a2a and N1b.

Origins, age, spread and ethnic association of European haplogroups and subclades.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtmlhaplogroups-timeline

  • K => 40,000 years ago (probably arose in northern Iran)
  • T => 30,000 years ago (around the Red Sea)
  • J => 30,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
  • R => 28,000 years ago (in the Central Asia)
  • E1b1b => 26,000 years ago (in southern Africa)
  • I => 25,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • R1a1 => 21,000 years ago (in southern Russia)
  • R1b => 20,000 years ago (around the Caspian Sea or Central Asia)
  • E-M78 => 18,000 years ago (in north-eastern Africa)
  • G => 17,000 years ago (between India and the Caucasus)
  • I2 => 17,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • J2 => 15,000 years ago (in northern Mesopotamia)
  • I2b => 13,000 years ago (in Central Europe)
  • N1c1 => 12,000 years ago (in Siberia)
  • I2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • R1b1b2 => 10,000 years ago (north or south of the Caucasus)
  • J1 => 10,000 years ago (in the Arabian peninsula)
  • E-V13 => 10,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • I2b1 => 9,000 years ago (in Germany)
  • I2a1 => 8,000 years ago (in Sardinia)
  • I2a2 => 7,500 years ago (in the Dinaric Alps)
  • E-M81 => 5,500 years ago (in the Maghreb)
  • I1 => 5,000 years ago (in Scandinavia)
  • R1b-L21 => 4,000 years ago (in Central or Eastern Europe)
  • R1b-S28 => 3,500 years ago (around the Alps)
  • R1b-S21 => 3,000 years ago (in Frisia or Central Europe)
  • I2b1a => less than 3,000 years ago (in Britain)

familytreedna.com/public/ArmeniaDNAProject Haplogroups I1 & I2 are descendants of suprahaplogroup F which is thought to represent a second and later stage of human migration out of Africa 50 thousand years ago. As can be seen in this MAP, Haplogroup I and its sister clades J1 & J2 are thought to have reached Europe via the Middle East using the Levant corridor. J is present in and highly typical of the Middle East, while haplogroup I is nearly non-existent here and seemingly exclusive to Europe as can be seen in this MAP (M253 = I1; M26 = I2a1; M423 = I2a2; M223 & M284= I2b1).
As per Ken Nordtvedt, the haplogroup I specialist: “Straddling 12,000 years B.P. [Before Present], Europe and nearby regions experienced a prolonged cold period of over a thousand years duration — the Younger Dryas. It was probably the most recent severe demographic setback our ancestors around Europe experienced. Although y haplogroup I (y-Hg I) was by then a mature-in-age haplogroup, being perhaps 10,000 years old already, I conclude from collecting and examining between five and ten thousand haplotypes of y-Hg I today that only nine males emerged from Younger Dryas with surviving male-line descendants today. These Younger Dryas Nine now have tens of millions of male descendants in Europe and elsewhere on the globe where Europeans have settled in recent centuries. 12,000 B.P. each of these nine males were not alone; each was living in a surrounding hunter-gatherer male population of immediate family, extended family, clan, tribe, etc. Some of these neighboring males carried y haplotypes very close to one of the nine and descended from common ancestors not too much further back in time. These clades of haplotypes surrounding each of the nine could be counted in the tens, hundreds, maybe even thousands of contemporaries. But due to very high extinction probabilities for these male lines, exceeding 99 percent, these nine lucky ones emerged as sole representatives of their clades having surviving lines today. Many y-clades no doubt went completely extinct in that era“. You can read Ken’s entire post here

http://www.thefullwiki.org/Neolithic_Europe The Semites, Greeks, ..! J the sister of I.


Frequencies of Haplogroup J2 in Europe, a possible genetic signature of the Neolithic migration. Distribution of Neolithic Cardial Pottery corresponds with that of J2


illyria.proboards.com The area in and around Albanian speaking regions has the highest known percentages E-V13 in the world.

FileGenomap01_thumb[1]thefullwiki.org/Haplogroup_I1_(Y-DNA)  One theory showing the dispersal of I1 (M253) in Europe based on information from The Genographic Project.




eupedia/neolithic_europe_map !! See on this eupedia link 6 great protected maps!!


Bronze-Age European cultures of 2000 BC


Iron-Age European cultures of 1000 BC


Maciamo / Eupedia : I have created a new map for Y-haplogroup I2a (including I2a1 and I2a2). Data is still sparse or unreliable for Bulgaria, Romania and the Middle East. For instance some studies give a very unreasonable 1% of I2a in Bulgaria while others go over 40%.
The problem in the Middle East is that few studies distinguish subclades of I. There shouldn’t be any significant number of I1 or I2b beyond Western Anatolia, but that doesn’t mean that all I is I2a. There could be I* and I2*. I had choice but resort to some guesswork. A study on Kurdistan gave 33% of hg I for the Zazaki Turks of eastern Anatolia. I doubt that all of it is I2a, but it’s possible considering the high percentage of R1a (26%) and the fact that they are Indo-European speakers.


About Alex Imreh

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