Indus Valley Conference Perhaps the most intriguing characteristic of the Indus Valley civilization is its lack of evidence of war, conflict or even invasion, which destroys the “invasion theory” of the Aryan peoples often promoted as “migration” theory. “I don’t believe in a migration theory,” commented Kazanas. Still Kenoyer and Shaffer have discovered no pictures or art of kings conquering other lands, as is the case of much of the Mesopotamian civilizations. “It’s really propaganda to encourage war and justify it,” said Kenoyer. The Indus Valley has none of this.
encyclopediaindica.com/index.php/History_of_Aryans_in_India The fact that the Baltic languages are the most closely related to Sanskrit, leads some scholars to the conclusion that this area must lie closely to the Urheimat…The cultural heritage common to the Aryan peoples reveals a whole system of mythical notions about the Utmost North: knowledge about the Polar half-year long day and half-year long night, the North-Star in zenith, the northern lights and the Arctic ocean with its blocks of ice. The Aryans knew the names of the river Volga (Ved. Rasa, cf. Mord. Ravo) and Ural mountain (Ved. Rep.); they also possessed the conception of a miraculous multifeet deer-like animal (Ved. Sarabha) The Rgveda (10,75.2) and the SatapathaBrahmana (1, 5. 4-5) speak of leaves falling down from the trees in the autumn and of birds flying away. The area was described as containing great rivers which flowed from north to south; the Ponto-Caspian steppes (Ukraine and the Lower Volga basin, not Central Asia and Kazakhstan) satisfy these conditions (Lelekov 1982)
…It is in the Ukrainian and Fore-Caucasian catacomb cultures that we can find the explanation for the strange shape of the Vedic vedi, which is square with all the four sides sagging inwards. Trefoil-shaped, four-sided clay altars were used in the Tripolye culture of the Ukraine during the fourth millennium…
According to Bunsen the Aryans first settled on the Oxus around 4000 B.C. They called this river the Sarasvati and here Vedic culture developed. Around this time agriculture begins, allowing the population to move from the foothills into oases along the rivers that flow into the Central Asian desert. The new settlements include large fortified buildings. In archaeological terms there is evidence of domestic horses on steppes from at least 4000 BC…The name Sarasvati was later corrupted by the Persians (one of the tribes in the first millenium BC) into Harahvaiti and later into Harut, from which the Croats (Horvat) derive their name…The Vedic river Raha ro Rasa is identified with the Volga river, which in old slavonic languages is called Rasa, from which Russia derives its name”. The Aryans called their country Arya-varta or shortly varta. When, the Greeks under Alexander came to India in the Fourth century BCE, the Greek writer Megasthenes in his Indika, fragments of which are recorded in several Greek writings, mentioned that the Indians (Hindus) had a record of 153 kings going back over 6400 years (showing that the Hindus were conscious of the great antiquity of their culture even then). This would yield a date that now amounts to 6700 BCE.
Bunsen however states that around 4000BC or earlier the Ayans were living on the Oxus or Sarasvati banks, around 3000 BC they were in Bactria and they reached the Indus around 2000 BC and in 1000 BC they reached Ceylon (Vambery, Bunsen, iii. 584,586), but some scolars object to this and state that the Aryans were much earler in the Indus/Ganga region). From the Oxus river the Aryans reached the Tarim Basin around 3000 BC. Recently Aryan Nordic type mummies from around 2000 BC have been found in his ormer part of Aryavarta.
In the picture – Swastika found on a a clay bowl recovered from the Tocharian grave sites. The swastika is an ancient symbol. Dating back 6,000 years, the swastika predates the ancient Egyptian symbol, the Ankh. Approximately 4,000 years ago (1000 BCE), the swastika was commonly used; swastikas have been found on many artifacts such as pottery and coins dating from ancient Troy and all over Europe and India. With the spread of Buddhism it spread to China, Japan, Korea and South-east Asia. There are clockwise and counter-clockwise svastika’s both having. In ancient times, the direction of the swastika was interchangeable as can be seen on an ancient Chinese silk drawing…There is a similarity between Harappa and Central-Asian seals. The excavations of the ruins at Mohenjodaro and Harrappa (Indus valley) proved the existence of a developed Urban civilization in India. The Indus valley civilization is dated around 3000 B.C. The Swastika is found in Indus valley archeological sites as well as Central Asian ones. The ancient western Asia had trade relations with the people of the Indus Valley and Central Asia. It is evident from the discovery of Indus Valley seals in Mesopotamia at the level dating between 2300 and 2000 B.C. Some particular seals found in Crete proved to be of exactly of the same material as those found in the Indus Valley.
In the 1970s, Soviet archaeologists working west of Afghanistan reported vast ruins, all built with the same distinct pattern of a central building surrounded by a series of walls. Several hundred were found in Bactria and Margiana on the border that separates Afghanistan from Russia’s Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (Annau near Achgabad). Since then many artefacts have been dug up. The people, who lived in desert oases in what is now Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, used irrigation to grow wheat and barley, forged distinctive metal axes, carved alabaster and marble into intricate sculptures, and painted pottery with elaborate designs, many with stylized versions of local animals, according to discoveries that have emerged during the past decade or so. Tiny stamp seal carrying four letter-like symbols in an unidentified language dated to 2300 BC have also been found. The fortress-like buildings of the civilization are larger than the biggest structures of ancient Mesopotamia or China. Many of the artworks, utensils and jewelry were buried with the dead, in an unusual pattern for other early people. The women were buried with more valuables than the men probably since they were bearing more jewelleries. There is a foot-tall alabaster column, a carved marble plate on a stand, an alabaster bowl, pieces of delicately painted pottery, and a bone pipe, possibly for drug use, carved into a little stylized human figure. Near the pipe, Hiebert found remains of the herb ephedra as well as poppy. Small bronze axes carry designs, including one of a wild boar, and a piece of pottery is decorated with leopards. Their world was full of dangers, wild boars, snakes, scorpions. These animals show up in their ritual art. The animal patterns support the idea that the people practiced an early form of Hinduism or Vedism. Animal worship was part of Vedic ritual, as was the use of fire, suggested by some hearths, or altars, found in the remains of ancient buildings.
Mittani – Hurrians : Indic epic, first of all Veda and classical poems, usually notices that Aryans came from the north. In legends described in Rigveda, the homeland of Aryans is placed somewhere in the north, where the climate is milder and colder than in India. India was occupied by Indo-Europeans even earlier than Persia/Iran. Indic settlers went from Eastern Europe via the Central Asian steppes and India to the Western-Asia. The European Aryans went from the same Eastern European homeland to the rest of Europe; 2250 BC : Achaeans come to Greece ; 2100 BC : Hittites and Luwians settle in East Asia Minor
The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who apparently entered Mesopotamia from the north before 2500 BC and established themselves as rulers of small kingdoms in northern Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Syria. The largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni, which lasted from 1450 BC until its destruction by Assyria in 1270 BC. The populous and once very powerful Hurrite states and communities – Mitanni (Naharina), Alzi, Karahar, Arrapha, Urartu (Nairi, Biaini) Kesedim, Subarians, Kassites , Lullubi, Habiru and others – at various times blended with newly-emerging states, and the bulk of the Hurrites and Urarteans were assimilated by the more numerous Semitic, Kurdic, Persian, Turkic and other tribes. The Mitanni were a people of Indic (Aryan) origin, the term Indic is used to designate Indian languages. Archaeological data from the Middle East showed that new inscriptions of the Mitanni Empire in northern Mesopotamia, written in cuneiform, were proven Indo-European. Unfortunately, the number of words and morphemes is quite small, but still they give us a chance to identify the language. All of them date from the period between 1700 and 1400 BC, when the Mitanni Empire was flourishing. The words are known from several exact sources: Kikkuli’s horse-breeding treatise written in Hittite but containing special professional terms from Indic (obviously, Aryans were known as good horse-breeders); the personal names of Mitanni princes and princesses; the names of deities on the Mitanni-Hatti treaties of the 14th century BC; a Hurrian text from Yorgan-Tepe; several Kassite documents with Akkadian translations. In a famous treaty between the Hittite ruler Suppiluliuma and the Hurrite Mitanni king, Mattiwaza,(Mattiraja) about 1370 BC, the Vedic gods Mithra, Varuna, Indra and the twin Nasatyas are invoked.
The daughter of the King Tushratta (Tushyaratha or Dasharatha), Princess Tadukhipa, became the second queen of Akhenaten; the daughter of King Artatama was married to Thutmose IV, Akhenaten’s grandfather; and the daughter of Sutarna II (Gilukhipa) was married to his father, Amenhotep III, the great builder of temples who ruled during 1390-1352 BC (“khipa” of these names is the Sanskrit “kshipa,” night). In his old age, Amenhotep wrote to Dasharatha many times wishing to marry his daughter, Tadukhipa. It appears that by the time she arrived Amenhotep III was dead. Tadukhipa married the new king Akhenaten and she may have became famous as the Queen Kiya (short for Khipa). Some theories however identify her with Nefertiti, also a Queen of Akhenaten. According to ancient records, 3400 years ago,Egyptian Emperor Menkheperura or Thutmose the IV, married a daughter of King Artatma. concerns about the Egyptian King’s lack of Vedic culture was the basis for King Artatama’s repeated refusal to give his daughter in marriage to the most powerful monarch of his times. Not until the seventh asking, did King Artatma agree to the marriage proposal. The Ancient records state, “after the seventh asking, the king of Mitanni gave his daughter to the king of Egypt.” Another branch of Aryans related to the Indians were the Pontic Aryans or Sindoi.
www.crystalinks.com/atlantisthule.html – Source: The Mystique of Swastika
The swistika is found as a religious and ornamental symbol in ancient Egypt. The excavations undertaken recently by the Turkish Government at Aladja-Hoyuk uncovered the so-called standards made out of Swastika symbols. These metallic articles were buried along with corpses during the 22nd century B.C. Probably these were kept there to ensure the safety and well-being of the deceased. In Lycaonia, on a Hittite monument, it appears as an ornament on the border of the robe of a person engaged in offering sacrifice. In the designs on jars excavated in Cappadocia, spirals, Swastikas and Crosses are found. All these vases belong to the Hittite age, about 2200-1200 B.C.
Swastika, called as ‘flyfot’, was a popular artistic and sacred symbol throughout the Teutonic age in Europe. It appeared on jewels and weapons, not only of Gallic, but also of German and Scandinavian people. When placed beside a human head, it represented God. In company with the thunderbolt and the wheel it is seen inscribed on the altars of the Gallic-Roman period. It is regarded as the sacred symbol in Roman England. It adorned the floor of the thresholds of the famous Roman villa excavated at Lullingstone in Britain.
Swastika is marked on a number of early Christian tombs. It was an archaic custom to mark the tombs with this symbol or to place vases with Swastika symbols in tombs. It was performed to ensure the safety of the departed soul or to fend off demonic spirits. Subsequently, the Swastika was replaced by the Cross. Swastika has been discovered at several locations in the New World. It was considered as an auspicious sign by some of the original inhabitants of America. Swastika is found in monumental remains of the primitive Mexicans and Peruvians and on objects exhumed from prehistoric burial mounds within the limits of the USA.
It was revived by Hitler when he made it the national emblem of Nazi Germany. He believed that this ancient Aryan sign brought prosperity and victory. It has been the sacred symbol of the Buddhists and the Jains. It bears the name of Swastika when the limbs are bent towards the right, and Suavastika when they are turned to the left. It is believed that the first represents Lord Ganesha, while the second represents goddess Kali. According to the other school of thought, the first stands for the sun, for light and life; the second stands for night and destruction. Indians inscribe it on the opening page of their account books. In ceremonies associated with marriages, mundan, the worship of luxmi etc the Swastika is worshipped as the symbol of Ganesha. It is marked along with the sign of Navagrahas.
Swastika is one of the eight types of yogic seats mentioned in the Vayaviya-samhita of the Shiv Purana. The discovery of Swastika in almost all parts of the globe has given rise to so many interpretations. Certain authorities believe that Ganesha on his Vahana, the rat, symbolized a sun-god, overcoming the animals. Which, in archaic mythology was a sign of night. The cult of sun worship is probably the most primitive (old) one. The sun brings joy, light and life for mankind. People belonging to the Indus Valley civilization believed in sun worshipping, which is evident from the discovery of a number of signs and symbols associated with the sun.
According to Vayu Purana, “the lord of serpents, who lives on the Devakuta mountain, has one hundred hoods and is marked with the Chakras (Swastika) of Vishnu.” According to the same source, Brahma was practicing severe penance, as a result of which sweat came from his body which gave rise to the serpent world, which had marks of Swastika on them. It is interesting to note that on prehistoric bowls found at Sammarra, serpents are shown as moving around the sun. Being a symbol of the sun, the chakra represents life and movement, which transform the dwarf into the giant or the microcosm into macrocosm or again the centre into its diameter.
Aladja-Hoyuk, which is identified with the Hittite city Ariana, was the seat of the cult of sun god. The Buddhists inherited reverence of Swastika from the belief that Lord Buddha is the incarnation of Vishnu, and carried it to Tibet, China, Japan and Korea. Swastika is found on the images of the lord. It is seen on the footprint of Lord Buddha. In China, swastika found a place among written characters, where it contains the notion of abundance, prosperity and long life. In Japan, it represents the number 10,000. The Chinese empress Wu (684-704 A.D.) decreed that it should be used as sign for the sun. The seal of the Harappan period shows a man carrying a manger with propitiatory offering for a tiger standing in front of him. On the reverse the same inscription is repeated, besides a row of five Swastikas as auspicious symbols signifying security and good luck.
According to K.N. Shastri, the sealing was obviously an amulet against possible dangers arising from the depredations of tigers. Ideas and beliefs migrate with traders, soldiers and migrants. The ancient western Asia had trade relations with the people of the Indus. Valley. It is evident from the discovery of Indus Valley seals in Mesopotamia at the level dating between 2300 and 2000 B.C. Some particular seals found in Crete proved to be of exactly of the same material as those found in the Indus Valley. The figures of animals and birds with fish in their beaks appearing on vases found from the tombs in Sammarra (dating 4000 B.C.) are significantly similar to that painted on potteries found from tombs in Harappa.
The pipal tree (Ficus religiosa) was regarded as sacred both in Harappa and Elam (It may be due to the fact that this is the only plant in the plant kingdom which releases more amount of oxygen day and night, than any other plant). These instances prove that Palestine, Elam and Harappa had close trade and cultural relations. The appearance of the Swastika on vases belonging to this period proves that the symbol of Swastika was traveling from one place to other along with the normal merchandise.
The Swastika was a very popular symbol in ancient Turkey, where it was frequently applied by the smiths of Anatolia. It is interesting to note that two kinds of Swastikas, one revolving to the right and other to the left have been excavated from a tomb in Aladja-Hoyuk. These could be interpreted as the rising and setting the sun. The Swastika is found on the megalithic pottery from Kunnatur, Coorg and Coimbatore. It has also been traced on a red ware belonging to the Chalcolithic phase on the site of Rangpur. These instances prove that the sacredness of the Swastika was the most primitive belief in India. It seems that the people of the Indus Valley, who inherited this symbol, believed in sun worship and spread this cult to Elam.
Mesopotamia and Asia Minor or the people of these countries got it from Indians migrants even before the prosperous settlements of the Indus Valley came into being. A scene of Swastika worship is found in the rock paintings of Paria Bari. It is mentioned in the Puranas that the masses worshipped the solar deity in its symbolic forms of disc, wheel, lotus and Swastika.
The discovery of the Swastika in the New World should not be explained away by the so-called theory of independent origin. It may have been carried to the New World by Asian Traders in the most archaic times. Some historians claim that long before the voyage undertaken by Columbus, America was discovered by the Phoenicians, and the Chinese. The discovery of images, said to be of the Lord Buddha, in America is really a significant event.