Present day Y-haplogroups in Romania:
Before Farming Ro DNA – 33%: I1-4.5%, I2/I2a-26%, I2b-2.5%
Middle East Farmers DNA – 35%: J2/J1-15%, E1b1b-15%, G-5%
Old Europe DNA – 68% : I1/2-33% + J1/E1/G – 35%
Kurgan, Celt & Slav DNA – 29.5% : R1a-17.5% + R1b-12%.
Kurgan/Celt DNA 17.5% : R1a-17.5%
Kurgan/Slav DNA – 12%: R1b-12%
African DNA: E-V13 E1b1b1a2 15%
12.000BC-6000BC – I1/2 before farmers
6000BC-5000BC – J1/2,E1b1,G bring farming from Middle Asia
6500-2000 BC Burned house horizon
5508 BC Anno Mundi – the biblical creation of the world
5700-4500 BC Vinca Culture
5500-2750 BC Cucuteni Culture
4400-4300BC First Kurgan Wave into East-Central Europe
3500BC Second Kurgan Wave-R1b Transformation of Central Europe
3000BC Third Kurgan Wave-Proto ItaloCelts in Transylvania/Pannonia
2000-1500BC R1a Greco-Macedonians invade ”Greece” from North
1200-1000BC R1b Hallstatt, Dorians & Sea People – First Dark Age
1000BC-82BC Iron Age Thracia/Daco-Getia
460 BC-46 AD The Odrysian Kingdom
82BC-106AD Burebista to Decebal –Magna Dacia & Dacian Kingdoms
106-271 Romans defeat Decebal and have 23 wars with Free Dacians
271-376 Gutthiuda/Gothia – after the final roman retreat
376-454 The Hun Empire – push south the Goth who destroy Rome
Start of Second Dark Age – fall of economies based on slavery caused by free people, city civilisations replaced by village economy
454-567 Gepid Kingdom – destroyed by avars in 576 Avars & Lombards
567-670 Avar Periods – Early 567-670, Middle 670-720 & Late 720-804
681-1018 First Bulgar Empire – 893-927 Simeon the Great
940-1046 Voievodatul lui Iuliu – primul episcopat Ortodox la Alba-Iulia
1185-1396 Second Vlah-Bulgarian State
1330 Wallachia – Basarab I defeats Charles I of Hungary at Posada
1359 Moldavia – from Transylvania to the Dniester River
Restart of Europe after Last Ice Age-I Haplogroup 25 kyr continuity, I2a-Vinca&Cucuteni-9000bc, I2-Urnfield. I-Italic tribes, Maps of Neolithic Cultures–The Romanian Etnogenesis *1 -‘Latin’ languages have I origin. Palaeolithic Europe 18,000 years ago was in the grip of the last ice age. Glacial ice 2km thick covered much of Northern Europe and the Alps. Sea levels were approx. 125m lower. By 12,000 Y BP the ice has retreated and the land became much more supportive to life. During the last 8 000 years, the climate has been much the same as today. Northern regions were generally re-colonised from the Iberian and Balkan refugia, and Italian lineages were often isolated because of the Alpine barrier.
12.000BC-6000BC most population in Europa was I1/2.During the last 8 000 years, the climate has been much the same as today. Northern regions were generally re-colonised from the Iberian and Balkan refugia, and Italian lineages were often isolated because of the Alpine barrier.
6500-2000 BC Burned house horizon – This was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what is now Southeastern and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6,500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). A notable representative of this tradition is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which was centered on the burned-house horizon both geographically and temporally.
5508 BC Facerea Lumii după Calendarul Vechi – Pisania bisericii Sf. Nicolae din Bălineşti din anul 7007. Era bizantină, întâlnită adesea sub forma de ani de la facerea/zidirea lumii sau ani de la Adam, a fost cronologia folosită oficial în Imperiul Bizantin şi în bisericile ortodoxe, începând din anul 691 d.Hr. până în 1728.
The first Great Civilizations of Europe: Cucuteni–Trypillia 5000–3000 BC + Vinca 6-3millennium BC = I2a in Haplogroup I
5700–4500 BC Cultura Vinca, 5500-2750 BC Cultura Cucuteni, The New York Times-A Lost European Culture; Vlassa-Tartaria, Striga istoria sub noi, oameni buni!
5508BC: An equal mix of hunters I1/2 (50%) and farmers J1/2+E1b1+G (50%) start The Old Europe Era. Present day Romania, the turntable of Old Europe
Europe before the Kurgan waves. R1a-N of Black Sea, R1b-E of Black Sea. NW of Europe-mostly I1/2, S of Europe-arrival of J/E/G farmers.
4400BC-4300BC The First Kurgan Wave into East-Central Europe – Displacement and Amalgamation of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinca, and Lengyel Cultures. Emergence of Kurgan Elements in the Milieu of the LBK Culture.
3500BC – The Second Kurgan Wave – the Transformation of Central Europe After the Middle of the 4th Millennium BC. The Source: The North Pontic Maikop Culture with its superior metalurgy. An Amalgam of Kurgan and Cucuteni Traditions: The Usatovo Complex Northwest of the Black Sea.
1200-1000BC R1b Hallstatt, Dorians + Sea People & Phoenicians. The First Darg Age, the first distruction of ”civilized states” by ”free peoples”. Around 1200 BC the Sea Peoples produced the Late Bronze Age collapse. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.Drews writes “Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again”.
The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterized the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. The Sea Peoples from the north weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites respectively. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers to dominate the Medeterana. 1200Bc – The Dorian invasion of Greece ends the Mycenian culture. Expanding R1b Hallstatt Culture is probably the main wave behind the Sea Peoples and the Dorians are one of those ‘Sea Peoples’ pushed down by the The Alpine Celts. The Iron technology produced the more competitive weapons, the R1b warriors mixed with growing populations from Sardinia, Sicily, S of Italy and Anatolia destroyed all the palace empires. Egypt survived with great effort and Phoenicians were the only area NOT invaded in Levant. Phoenicia was the enterprising maritime trading culture the spread in Mediterana starting with 1550Bc, that dominated the Mediterranean shores from 1200BCto 300 BC, after the raids of the Sea People. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar toancient Greece. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet.
1000 BC – Iron working begins in the Balkans. RO – an I2 continuity since the Ice Age.The classical Dacian Culture – a fusion between the Old Dacians & the La Tene celts
460 BC–46 AD The Odrysian Kingdom – first unification Thracian tribes under a single ruler after the Persian defeat in Greece. Greek became the language of administrators and of the nobility, the Greek alphabet was adopted. Greek customs and fashions contributed to the recasting of east Balkan society. Thracian kings were among the first to be Hellenized. Odrysian kings though called Kings of Thrace never exercised sovereignty over all of Thrace. Control varied according to tribal relationships.[
Burebista 82 î.Hr. – 44 î.Hr. a reușit unirea triburile geto-dacice și a întemeiat statului dac. A fost ucis în urma unei revolte, regatul dac s-a destramăt în 5 părți. Centrul din jurul Munțiilor Orăștiei, a rămas sub stăpânirea lui Deceneu.
Roman Dacia 107-271 From the death of Burebista to the rise of Decebalus, Roman forces continued to clash against the Dacians and the Getae. The Romans conquered only a small part of Dacian territories, only enough to exploit the GOLD MINES from Transylvania, the rest was ruled by Free Dacians. The Dacian royal treasury captured by the Romans was of enormous value enough to boost the economy of all the empire: 500,000 pounds (226,800 kilograms) of gold and 1,000,000 pounds (453,600 kilograms) of silver.[ Crito wrote that approximately 500,000 Dacians were enslaved and deported.
Some areas were occupied after 106 by nomadic Sarmatian tribesmen, most likely a minority ruling over the sedentary Geto-Dacian majority e.g. Muntenia, which was ruled by the Roxolani Sarmatians and possibly also northern Moldavia, which was under the Costoboci, a people of possibly Sarmatian origin. Northern Carpathians, Bukovina was shared by non-Dacian tribes: the Anartes and the Taurisci, who were probably Celtic, and the Germanic Bastarnae are also attested in this region. Free Dacians are reported to have invaded and ravaged the Roman province in 214 and 218. Many emperors after Trajan, as late as AD 336, assumed the victory title of Dacicus Maximus, the titles imply ferocious wars.Aabout 10% of the imperial army‘s total regular effectives were located in Roman Dacia to defend it from Free Dacians between 106 & 275.
In 167 when the Iazyges, having been thrust out of Pannonia, focused their energies on Dacia and took the gold mines at Alburnus Maior (modern Roşia Montană, Romania). The suburban villas at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa were burned, and the camp at Slăveni was destroyed by the Marcomanni. By the time Marcus Aurelius reached Aquileia in 168 AD, the Iazyges had taken over 100,000 Roman captives. Between 106 & 271 the Romans had 23 wars with tribes coming from unoccupied Dacia.
In 180, the emperor Commodus, whose reign lasted from 180 to 92, is recorded as having admitted 12,000 “neighbouring Daci”, who had been driven out of their own territory by hostile tribes, for settlement in the Roman province. The latest secure mention of the Free Dacians in the ancient sources is Constantine I’s acclamation as Dacicus Maximus in 336. For the year 381, the Byzantine chronicler Zosimus records an invasion over the Danube by a barbarian coalition of Huns, Scirii & Karpodakai, or Carpo-Dacians a term which most likely means the “Dacians of the Carpathians”.
230s saw the end of the final peaceful period experienced in Roman Dacia. After 239 the empire was forced to buy peace in Moesia, paying an annual tribute to the Goths.
In the years immediately after the withdrawal, Roman towns survived, albeit on a reduced level. The previous tribes which had settled north of the Danube, such as the Sarmatians, Bastarnae, Carpi, and Quadi were increasingly pressured by the arrival of the Vandals in the north, while the Gepids and the Goths pressured them from the east and the northeast. This forced the older tribes to push into Roman territory, weakening the empire’s already stretched defences further. To gain entry into the empire, the tribes alternated between beseeching the Roman authorities to allow them in, and intimidating them with the threat of invasion if their requests were denied. Ultimately, the Bastarnae were permitted to settle in Thrace, while the Carpi which survived were permitted to settle in the new province of Pannonia Valeria west of their homeland. However, the Carpi were neither destroyed by other barbarian tribes, nor fully integrated into the Roman imperium. Those who survived on the borders of the empire were apparently called Carpodacae (“Carps from Dacia”).
By 291 AD the Goths had recovered from their defeat at the hands of Aurelian, and began to move into what had been Roman Dacia. When the ancestors of the Tervingi migrated into north-eastern Dacia, they were opposed by the Carpi and the non-Romanized Dacians. Defeating these tribes, they came into conflict with the Romans, who still attempted to maintain control along the Danube. By 295 AD, the Goths had managed to defeat the Carpi and establish themselves in Dacia, now called Gothia; the Romans recognised the Tervingi as a Foederatus. They occupied what was the eastern portion of the old province and beyond, from Bessarabia on the Dniester in the east to Oltenia in the west. Until the 320s the Goths kept the terms of the treaty and proceeded to settle down in the former province of Dacia, and the Danube had a measure of peace for nearly a generation.
271-376 Gutthiuda the country of Visigoths. Roman wars in Dacia : with Goths, Taifali, Bastarns and the Carpi in 248–250, with Carpi and Goths in 258 & 263, with the Goths and Heruli in 267 & 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus 253–268, the final official retreat was done by Aurelian in 270–275. The name Visigothi is an invention of Cassiodorus, other names for other Gothic divisions abounded. They were “the most formidable military power beyond the lower Danube frontier.” After they left Dacia in 376 they crushed the Roman Empire twice before establishing the Visigoth Kingdom in Hispania and Gallia. The Goth started their migration PUSHED by the HUNS.
376-454 The Hun Empire Huns & Goths start the Second ”Dark Age” – Roman ”Civilization” destroyed by ”barbarians”, fall of economies based on slavery caused by free people, city culture replaced by village economy. The Huns were “a confederation of warrior bands”, ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attila‘s rule, including very many speakers of Gothic, which some modern scholars describe as a lingua franca of the Empire. The Romans realized the presence of the Huns when their invasions of the Pontic steppes forced the Goths to move to the Lower Danube to seek refuge in the Roman Empire in 376. Attila the Hun died in 453, the empire broke up the next year.
The Huns first invaded the land of the Alans – a Scythian people, which was located to the east of the Don River, slaughtering many of them and forcing the survivors to submit or to flee across the Don. After they subjugated the Alans, the Huns and their Alan auxiliaries started plundering the wealthy settlements of the Greuthungi, or eastern Goths, to the west of the Don. After a while most Greuthungi submitted himself to the Huns. Those who decided to resist marched to the Dniester River which was the border between the lands of the Greuthungi and the Thervingi, or western Goths. They were under the command of Alatheus and Saphrax. Athanaric, the leader of the Thervingi, met the refugees along the Dniester at the head of his troops.However, a Hunnic army bypassed the Goths and attacked them from the rear, forcing Athanaric to retreat towards the Carpathian Mountains. Most Thervingi realized that they could not resist the Huns. They went to the Lower Danube, requesting asylum in the Roman Empire. The Greuthingi under the leadership of Alatheus and Saphrax also marched to the river. Most Roman troops had been transferred from the Balkan Peninsula to fight against the Sasanid Empire in Armenia. Emperor Valens permitted the Thervingi to cross the Lower Danube and to settle in the Roman Empire in the autumn of 376. The Thervingi were followed by the Greuthingi, and also by the Taifali and “other tribes that formerly dwelt with the Goths and Taifali” to the north of the Lower Danube, according to Zosimus. Food shortage and abuse stirred the Goths to revolt in early 377. The ensuing war between the Goths and the Romans lasted for more than five years.
As early as 380, a group of Huns was given Foederati status and allowed to settle in Pannonia. In 395 the Huns began their first large-scale attack on the Eastern Roman Empire. Huns attacked in Thrace, overran Armenia, and pillaged Cappadocia. They entered parts of Syria, threatened Antioch, and swarmed through the province of Euphratesia.
454-567 Gepidia – After the Battle of Nedao, the Hunnic Empire disintegrated and the Gepids became the dominant power in the eastern regions of the Carpathian Basin.For more than a millennium, the state that we call now inaccurately the Byzantine Empire, was named “Romania” – 41 de împărați au fost de origine traco-daca.
Avar Khaganate Early Avar Period 580-670, Middle 670-720 & Late 720-804 Avar periods – Pushed by Göktürks avars allied with Bulgars and moved West. By 562 the Avars controlled the lower Danube basin and the steppes north of the Black Sea. By the time they arrived in the Balkans, the Avars formed a heterogeneous group of about 20,000 horsemen. In 567 the Avars with the Lombards destroyed much of the Gepid Kingdom. By about 580, Bayan I established supremacy over most of Pannonia and Carpathian Basin. Sacked Dalmatia in 568, captured Sirmium. In 626, the sieged Constantinople with Sassanids. In the 630s slavs broke away under Samo, the ruler of the first historically known Slavic Tribal Union. By 670, the Khazars had broken the unity of the Bulgar confederation, causing their relocatin to the west. The Onogur-Bulgars, led by Khan Asparukh settled permanently along the Danube (c. 679-681), expanding the First Bulgarian Empire. Although the Avar empire had diminished to half its original size, the new Avar-Slav alliance consolidated their rule west from the central parts of the mid-Danubian basin and extended their sphere of influence west to the Viennese Basin. The Avars’ power base remianed in Pannonia, most of the Balkans now lay in the hands of Slavic tribes since neither the Avars nor Byzantines were able to reassert control. The Khaganate in the Middle and Late periods was a product of cultural symbiosis between Slavic and original Turkic elements with a Slavic language as a lingua franca or the most common language. In the 7th century, the Avar Khaganate opened a door for Slavic demographic and linguistic expansion to Adriatic and Aegean regions. A series of Frankish campaigns in the 790s led by Charlemagne ended with the conquest of the Avar realm, taking most of Pannonia up to the Tisza River. Avar occupation was ended when a Slavic-Croatian force led by prince Vojnomir and supported by the Franks launched a counterattack in 791. Charlemagne won another major victory against the Avars in 796. The Franks baptized many Avars and integrated them into the Frankish Empire. In 804, the First Bulgarian Empire conquered the southeastern Avar lands of Transylvania and southeastern Pannonia up to the Middle Danube River, and many Avars became subjects of the Bulgarian Empire. The Avars mixing with the more numerous populations they used to rule, vanished in an arc of three generations.
In ~660, the Khazars, another federated people freed from the yoke of the Western Turkic Khaganate, attacked Bulgaria from the east and captured Phanagoria and its Black Sea holdings up to the Dnieper. The ”destruction” of Old Great Bulgaria and the scattering of the four brothers may in fact have been the Khazars merely conquering an important part of the country and severing the territorial links between its outlying provinces. So Asparukh inherited, rather than wandered into, the lands north of the Danube after the death of his father, and his brother Kotrag inherited, rather than reaching, what would later become Volga Bulgaria. blazingbulgaria.wordpress.com/origins_of_bulgaria
Descendenţa din Asăneşti a Regelui Ferdinand I al României, Moscopole – oraș vlah – cel mai mare oras din Balcani in sec.18
Slavii /tracii in Balcani – dupa toponime si hidronime, N.BALCESCU: De la Bucuresti la Constantinopol numai vorba romaneasca!
681-1018 Primul imperiu ”bulgar”. 893-927 Simeon the Great.
1185-1396 al doilea Țarat Vlaho-Bulgar înființat de Petru și Asan.
940 – 1046 Voievodatul lui Iuliu, prima Catedrala Ortodoxă din ţara noastră la Alba Iulia – Cronică Românească de Istorie Veche, autor Cornel Birsan. Ultrasilvana un regnum latissimum et opulentissimum
1330 Wallachia – was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until approximately the Magyar conquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century. With the decline and subsequent fall of the first Bulgarian state to Byzantium (in the second half of the 10th century up to 1018), Wallachia came under the control of the Pechenegs who extended their rule west through the 10th and 11th century, until defeated around 1091, when the Cumans of southern Russia took control of the lands of Wallachia.
Beginning with the 10th century, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and later Western sources mention the existence of small entities led by knyazes and voivodes.
In 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, Cuman domination was ended—a direct Mongol rule over Wallachia was not attested, but it remains probable. Part of Wallachia was probably briefly disputed by the Hungarian Kingdom and Bulgarians in the following period, but it appears that the severe weakening of Hungarian authority during the Mongol attacks contributed to the establishment of the new and stronger polities attested in Wallachia for the following decades.
One of the first written pieces of evidence of local voivodes is in connection with Litovoi (1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Hațeg Country in Transylvania), and refused to pay tribute to the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. His successor was his brother Bărbat (1285–1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285–1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynasty opened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and to independence from Hungarian rule.
Wallachia’s creation, held by local traditions to have been the work of one Radu Negru (Black Radu), is historically connected with Basarab I (1310–1352), who rebelled against Charles I of Hungary and took up rule on either side of the Olt River, establishing his residence in Câmpulung as the first ruler in the House of Basarab. Basarab refused to grant Hungary the lands of Făgăraș, Almaş and the Banat of Severin, defeated Charles in the Battle of Posada (1330), and extended his lands to the east, to comprise lands as far as Kilia (in the Bujak), as the origin of Bessarabia); rule over the latter was not preserved by the princes that followed, as Kilia fell to the Nogais ca.1334. Basarab was succeeded by Nicolae Alexandru, followed by Vladislav I. Vladislav attacked Transylvania after Louis I occupied lands south of the Danube, conceded to recognize him as overlord in 1368, but rebelled again in the same year; his rule also witnessed the first confrontation between Wallachia and the Ottoman Turks (a battle in which Vladislav was allied with Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria). Under Radu I and his successor Dan I, the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary.
1359 Moldavia – The medieval Principality of Moldavia was established in 1359 and covered the so-called Carpathian–Danube–Dniester area, stretching from Transylvania in the west to the Dniester River in the east. The foundation of Moldavia is attributed to the Vlach noblemen Dragoş of Bedeu, from Maramureş, who had been ordered in 1343 (1285 after other sources ) by the Hungarian king to establish a defense for the historic Kingdom of Hungary against the Tatars, and Bogdan I of Cuhea, Maramureș, who became the first independent prince of Moldavia, when he rejected Hungarian authority in 1359. The greatest Moldavian personality was prince Stephen the Great, who ruled from 1457 to 1504.