The Getes big-bang theory

neolithic-expansionfarming

Byzantine Creation Era  ”The Making of the World”- Facerea Lumii – 5600 BCthe Indo-European_isoglossesbreaking of the Bosphorus, the Fresh Water Lake becomes the Salt Water Black Sea.
The Proto Getes living around the banks of Black Sea migrate outwards. ProtoGetes going up the Danube to Western Europe became ProtoCelts and ProtoGetes going east became Massagetae / IndoAryans – vedic & iranian cultures. Present day Romania is the turntable, the intersection of all indo-european branches!!

5kBC1pastoralR1b origin is SE of Caspian sea. R1b goes round S of Caspian Sea than to the N of Black Sea. Here we have the SECOND BIG BANGThe southern Steppe R1b culture  culture mixed with northern forest-steppe R1a culture AND Old Europe I2+J1/E1/G Cucuteni farming culture!! This mixture produced the Arian Getes. 

r1b-migration-mapBut the center of gravity in my opinion is not the N of the Black Sea – it is the Cucuteni/Vinca/Hamangia area, ie Old Europe around present day Romania, which is the area with BIGGEST population. I2 is the basic layer which absorbed first the J1/E1/G neolithic farmers that came from Middle Asia producing the Old Europe civilization. This is the FIRST BIG BANG, based on FARMING the first mixture that produced a stronger culture, better technologies, better living conditions, population growth!! The farming, the east shores of the Black Sea and the lower Danube basin produced the biggest population growth &concentration which later started to expand, to Western Europe – the ProCelts and than through the Aryan migrations, to the Pontic Caspian steppes and down to the vedic and iranian cultures.arian-homeeuropa1000bc

The Cucuteni culture also had a big asset – SALT.   The Salt Industry is essential for the Second Big Bang!! First Cucuteni started to develop farming and living close to the salt area in the Carpathians, but slowly they were able to transport the salt to the Dniester, Don are and further.

salt1Salt2

The provision of salt was a major logistical problem for the largest Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements. As they came to rely cucuteni_trypillianupon cereal foods over salty meat and fish, Neolithic cultures had to incorporate supplementary sources of salt into their diet. Similarly, domestic cattle need to be provided with extra sources of salt beyond their normal diet or their milk production is reduced. Cucuteni-Trypillian mega-sites, with a population of likely thousands of people and animals, are estimated to have required between 36,000 and 100,000 kg of salt per year. This was not available locally, and so had to be moved in bulk from distant sources, probably from the Carpathian Mountains by river.

romanianhistoryandculture.com/indoeuropean Sites: A]Mikhailovka, B] Petrovka, C]Arkhaim; D]Sintashta, E]Botai, F]Namazga, G]Gonur, H]Togolok, I]Dashly Oasis, J]Sapelli, K]Djarkutan, L]Hissar, M]Shahr-i-Sokhta, N]Sibri, O]Shahdad, P]Yahya, Q]Susa.
Cultures: 1]Cucuteni -Tripolye, 2]Pit Grave/Catacomb, 3]Sintashta/Arkhaim, 4]Abashevo, 5]Afanasievo, 6]Andronovo, 7]Bactrian Margiana archaeological complex, 8] Indus, 9]Akkadian, 10]Hurrian, 11]Hittite

pie2

The Afanasievo culture is the earliest Eneolithic archaeological culture found until now in south Siberia. Radiocarbon estimates give a date of around 3300 BC for the start of the culture. The culture is mainly known from its inhumations, with the deceased buried in Tarimconic or rectangular enclosures, often in a supine position, reminiscent of burials of the Yamna culture. Settlements have also been discovered. The Afanasevo people became the first food-producers in the area by breeding cattle, horses, and sheep. Metal objects and the presence of wheeled vehicles are documented. These resemblances to the Yamna culture make the Afanasevo culture is a strong candidate to represent the earliest cultural form of a people later called the Tocharians. The Afanasevo culture was succeeded by the Andronovo culture as it spread eastwards.
Haplogroup_R1b_WorldR1a1a_distributionThe Abashevo culture is a later Bronze Age (ca. 2500–1900 BCE) archaeological culture found in the valleys of the Volga and Kama River north of the Samara bend and into the southern Ural Mountains. Artifacts are kurgans and remnants of settlements. The Abashevo culture does not pertain to the Andronovo culture and genetically belongs to the circle of Central European cultures of the Fatyanovo culture type corded ware ceramics. The economy was mixed agriculture. Horses were evidently used, inferred by cheek pieces typical of neighboring steppe cultures.[3] The population of Sintashta derived their stock-breeding from Abashevo, although the role of the pig shrinks sharply. It follows the Yamna culture and Balanovo culture[5] in its inhumation practices in tumuli. There is evidence of copper smelting, and the culture would seem connected to copper mining activities in the southern Urals. The Abashevo culture was an important center of metallurgy[9] and stimulated the formation of Sintashta metallurgy. The Abashevo ethno-linguistic identity can only be a subject of speculation, reflecting both northern penetration of the earlier Iranian steppe Poltavka culture as well as an extension of Fatyanovo-Balanovo traditions. It was preceded by the Yamna culture and succeeded by the Srubna culture and the Sintashta culture.

The last Ice Age covered most of the Eurasia, the Europe population was reduced to a few pockets of resistance. When the ice started to retreat all Europe was re-colonized from the Danube/Carpathian are with I1/I2 populations. So first we have the first big-bang – I2 Europeans absorb the J1/E1/G migrations form Middle Asia, we have the first technologies, farming and pottery.
Based on salt the Cucutenians go East to the fertile areas north of the Black Sea where they meet the R1b people coming form the S of Caspian sea and the R1a hunters from the northern forest steppes. The second big bang is based also on a second wave of ”technologies”: the Salt mining coming from the Carpathians and the horse domestication coming from the Sredny Stog culture on Dnieper.
Farming + salt/food preservation + transportation/trade + ”a sparkling ethnic mixture” produced POPULATION GROWTH and competition which will produce EXPANSION. This Second Big-Bang will expand to East, to the next basins that are offering good living conditions – Donets, Volga, Caspian Sea steppes, Aral Sea and the Oxus/Amu_Darya, and down to Indus and Middle Asia again.
The I2/R1a/R1b mixture is not based so much on farming, it is based on animal herding and horse domestication with transportation based on primitive chariots. At about 2000BC we have a THIRD BIG-BANG the Aryan Getes going east develop the ”modern chariot technology” AND copper mining and bronze metallurgy while they mix with asian populations. They are retracing the R1b route, going back the original area of R1b, where they will meet again with big farming culture/cities of BMA Complex.  The peak of this culture will produce the amazing Arkaim/Sintashta cities.

arkaim

The Arkaim/Sintashta cities/area, are based on copper mining, arsenical bronze industry and on the trade with the rich BMAC farming cities/areas. The empires and city-states of Iran and Mesopotamia provided an almost bottomless market for metals. These trade routes later became the vehicle through which horses, chariots and ultimately Indo-Iranian-speaking people entered the Near East from the steppe.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilization of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2300–1700 BCE. The inhabitants of the BMAC were sedentary people who practised irrigation farming of wheat and barley. With their impressive material culture including monumental architecture, bronze tools, ceramics, and jewellery of semiprecious stones, the complex exhibits many of the hallmarks of civilization. In the same time Arkaim features sewerage, fireproof impregnation of walls and other technologies. Climatic pressure, maybe pressure from asian populations, the attraction of the rich BMAC cities probably pushed the Getes to migrate south.
Around 1700BC #1-Arkaim is suddenly abandoned, #2 it’s the end of the BMAC culture and #3 we have the first aryan migration into the Indus valley! This is the FOURTH BIG-BANG, the mixture between scythia-parthia”kurgan Aryans” with farming southerners, the Getes will become MassaGetes, the Big Getes. R1b has returned to origins, farming and all the technologies are coming together with the best warriors, to produce the strongest mix, the most competitive hybrid culture. These warriers/aristocracy will conquer the Indus Valley, will produce the big Hittite, Mittani Empires, the IndoIranien and Vedic civilizations.  Massageteans/on the Oxus, south of Aral Sea, are in the center of Scythian/Getae/Jet continuum from Dniester to Indus, the Great Scythia. This epicenter on the Oxus river of the Great Getes (the MassaGetes) will produce resistance to Persians & Alexander the Great, will produce the Greco Bactrian Kingdom and the Kushan Empire. The eastern Getes will have a natural affinity with the western Getes, the Macedonians of Alexander the Great. greco-bactriankingdommap1Kushan-Empire_100ad

Under the pressure of the rising Turkish populations-the Huns, the most eastern branch of the indo-europeans, the Tocharians / The Yuezhi  and the the Hephthalites, with a mixed blood, will produce the last Aryan invasion of the Indian subcontinent. Yueh-Chih Migrations_thumb[4]Hephthalites_500ad_thumb[3]

And that is the beginning of the END!! The Huns, the Mongols and the Turks will wipe out the Aryan Getes of the Asia, the Aryan Cultures/States, Turkish populations will become dominant in all the Asia.hunsmongol-empire-large

 

So again let’s see the cultures going from Cucuteni area to the East, from river to river, aquiring new technologies in time.
>> 0] Old EuropeVinca + Cucuteni/Dniester
>> 1] Sredny Stog/Dnieper 5th millennium Bc, horse domestication
>> 2] Yamna/Dnieper-Donets 36-23rd century BC, kurgan proto IE
>> 3] Poltavka /Volga 2700—2100BC

BC4500-3500SrednyStogSitesAndronovo_cultureForestSteppeCultureshorsepower%20map%20yamnayaAbove the maximal extent of the Andronovo culture, in orange. The formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture is shown in darker red. The location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds is indicated in purple. Adjacent and overlapping cultures (Afanasevo culture, Srubna culture, BMAC) are shown in green.

>> 4] ”bi-etnic” Abashevo 2500–1900BC Volga and southern Ural Mountains
>> 5] THIRD BBSintashta-ARKAIM-Petrovka/North of Caspian Sea 2100–1800BC earliest known chariots & copper mining and bronze metallurgy
>> 6] Andronovo/East of Caspian Sea 1800–1400BC, copper ore in the Altai Mountains
>> 7] Tocharians/Tarim Basin maybe linked with the Afanasevo culture of eastern Siberia (c. 3500 – 2500 BC), the Tarim mummies(c. 1800 BC) and the Yuezhi of Chinese records >> 8] FOURTH BB: kurgan warriors meet  BMAC 2300–1700 BCE farming civilization/ Oxus/Amu_Darya – results a much stronger hybrid culture
>> 9] Indus 1700BC first arian conquest
>> 10] Anatolia Hittites 1600-1500Bc and Mittani 1400bc
>> 11] Vedic Indus Culture 1750–500 BC
>> 12] Massageteans/on the Oxus, south of Aral Sea, are in the center of Scythian/Getae/Jet continuum from Dniester to Indus.

r1a-y-dna-eupedia

The Getes were known by the Greco-Romans to the west, by the Chinese to the east, and by the Indians and Persians to the south. In the fourth and third centuries BC, after IE expansionresisting Alexander the Great, the Massagetae subdued nearly all the nomad tribes of Central Asian north of the Macedonian frontier, eastward to the Tien-Shan Mountains, and possibly many tribes of the Kazakhstan steppes; this led to a tremendous extension of their culture. Sakas, Dahae, Daae, Sacae, Daks, Alans, Sarmatians, ThracoGetians, Thyssagetae, Tyrigetae, Great Yuezhi, Ephthalites or White Huns, Kushans, Tochari, Cimmerians,  Goths, Iazygians, Roxolani, Dacians, there seems to be a continuity between the vast steppes, from neolithic to the Middle Age.

PS. The first evidence of extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest evidence of copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[6]including a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. Metallurgists of the Cucuteni Trypilliaculture knew various procedures of copper processing, cucuteni spiralbut also of obtaining alloys, such as the one of copper and silver. To a smaller extent, gold was also being processed, being meant for creating prestigious jewelry. Metal items sometimes accumulated within treasures (such as those discovered in Ariuşd, Hăbăşeşti, Brad, Cărbuna, Horodnica etc.). Thus, the treasure of Ariuşd (Romania) contained 1992 copper items, and the treasure of Cărbuna (Rep. Moldova) brought to light 444 metal items; the treasures of Ariuşd and Brad (Romania) also contained golden items.

 

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Getae – Goētes – Goths. goēteia is Ancient Greek for wizardry!

wiki – The Getae or Gets (Ancient Greek: Γέται, singular Γέτης; Bulgarian: Гети; Romanian: Geţi) are names given to several Thracian tribes inhabiting the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania. Dacians and Getae spoke the same language.
At the close of the 4th century AD, Claudian, court poet to the emperor Honorius and the patrician Stilicho, uses the ethnonym Getae to refer to the Visigoths. During 5th and 6th centuries, several historians and ethnographers (Marcellinus Comes, Orosius, John Lydus, Isidore of Seville, Procopius of Caesarea) used the same ethnonym Getae to name populations invading the Eastern Roman Empire (Goths, Gepids, Kutrigurs, Slavs). For instance, in the third book of the History of the Wars Procopius details: “There were many Gothic nations in earlier times, just as also at the present, but the greatest and most important of all are the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths, and Gepaedes.”
The Getae were considered the same people as the Goths by Jordanes in his Getica written at the middle of the 6th century, identifying their deity Zalmoxis as a Gothic king. Jordanes assumed the earlier testimony of Orosius.
The ninth-century work De Universo of Rabanus Maurus states, “The Massagetae are in origin from the tribe of the Scythians, and are called Massagetae, as if heavy, that is, strong Getae.

Goetes or rather goētes comes from goēteia which is Ancient Greek for witchcraft or wizardry (hence the long-forgotten word goety, for those who know their English). Ancient Greek γοητεία (goitia) means “charm, jugglery” from γόης “sorcerer, wizard”. Γοητεία was a term for witchcraft in Hellenistic magic. Latinized goetia via French goétie was adopted into English as goecie, goety in the 16th century. en.wikipedia.org/Goetia 
Translation and Meaning of γοητεία – allurement: γοητεία , θέλγητρο, bewitchment: goetesμαγεία , γοητεία, fascination: μαγεία , γοητεία, mesmerism: υπνωτισμός , γοητεία, sorcery: μαγεία , μαύρη μαγεία , μαγία , γοητεία, spell: βραχύ διάστημα , γοητεία, witchery: μαγεία , γοητεία
Greek γοητεία goēteiasorcery” refers to a practice which includes the invocation of angels or the evocation of demons, and usage of the term in English largely derives from the 17th-century grimoire The Lesser Key of Solomon, which features an Ars Goetia as its first section. It contains descriptions of the evocation of seventy-two demons, famously edited by Aleister Crowley in 1904 as The Book of the Goetia of Solomon the King.

Herodotus described the Getae as “the most valiant and most just of the Thracians.”
They were the most valiant and just, because they were prophets, hence their name: “goetes.” They believed in the immortality of the soul and that the real life was in the netherworld where the soul, released from the prison of matter and body, merges with the universe. The first vision of heaven already existed among the Getae. For them, death is the beginning of immortality and so they were fearless. Indeed, Herodotus says they practiced immortality. We know from the ancient authors in Alexandria, who worked at the beginning of our era, that it was the Getae priests and prophets that taught the Celtic priests, the Druids, in the lore of immortality.

The Goths – Gothic: *Gut-þiuda, *Gutans; Old Norse: Gutar/Gotar; German: Goten; Latin: Gothi; Greek: Γότθοι, Gótthoi – during the 2nd AD century were installed in Scythia, Dacia and Pannonia. In the 3rd and 4th century raided areas of Eastern Roman Empire & embraced Arianism. In the 5th and 6th centuries they divided into Visigoths (Western Goths) and Ostrogoths (eastern Goths) & founded powerful states, successors of the western Roman rule in Iberia and Italy, after they finished the Western Roman empire.
Another possibility is of course that the name of the “Geats” developed independently from that of the Gutar/Goths. The earliest mention of Geats was possibly made by Ptolemy in the 100’s AD (“doutai” or “goutai”) and in the 500’s by Jordanes (“gauthigoth”) and Prokopios (“gautoi”)
Geats (in Swedish “Götar”), which is what the (original) inhabitants of present-day Götaland/Geatland (originally south of Svealand, and north of the former Danish regions Skåne and Halland) call themselves, derives from a related Proto-Germanic word, *Gautaz (plural *Gautôz).

The word “chariot” comes from Latin carrus, which was a loan from Gaulish. cucuteni carA chariot of war or of triumph was called a car. In Romanian the word for chariot is CAR. Probably the first wheel in the world comes from the Cucuteni culture.
The Romanian word for wheel is ROATA!! – The Sanskrit word for a chariot is rátha- (m.),
which is cognate with Avestan raθa- (also m.), and in origin a substantivisation of the adjective Proto-Indo-European*rot-h₂-ó- meaning “having wheels”, with the characteristic accent shift found in Indo-Iranian substantivisations. This adjective is in turn derived from the collective noun *rot-eh₂- “wheels”, continued in Latin rota, which belongs to the noun *rót-o- for “wheel” (from *ret- “to run”) that is also found in Germanic, Celtic and Baltic (Old High German rad n., Old Irish roth m.,Lithuanian rãtas m.).[2]
The horse drawn wheeled vehicle probably originated in Mesopotamia about 3000 BC. The earliest depiction of vehicles in the context of warfare is on the Standard of Ur in Chariot_spreadsouthern Mesopotamia, c. 2500 BC. These are more properly called wagons or carts and were still double-axled and pulled by oxen or tamed asses before the introduction of horses c. 2000 BC. The earliest fully developed true chariots known are from the chariot burials of the Andronovo (Timber-Grave) sites of the Sintashta-Petrovka Proto-Indo-Iranian culture in modern Russia and Kazakhstan from around 2000 BC. This culture is at least partially derived from the earlier Yamna culture. It built heavily fortified settlements, engaged in bronze metallurgy on an industrial scale and practiced complex burial rituals reminiscent of Hindu rituals known from the Rigveda and the Avesta. The Sintashta-Petrovka chariot burials yield the earliest spoke-wheeled true chariots. The Andronovo culture over the next few centuries spread across the steppes from the Urals to the Tien Shan, likely corresponding to the time of early Indo-Iranian cultures.

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Gabi Vacuţă – Arheoceramik. Cucuteni 5000. Cocosul de Hurez.

www.targuldelasat.ro/cococi-ionel > Ceramică neolitica de Vadastra lucrata cu ajutorul tehnicii arhaice, decorate manual cu simboluri existente pe obiecte descoperite in sit. (site cofinantat din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operational Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007 – 2013) – Cumpararea obiectelor din catalog se poate face doar contactand mesterul care le-a realizat. Va sugeram sa cumparati mai multe obiecte de la acelasi mestesugar, astfel incat costul de transport sa reprezinte mai putin din totalul comenzii dumneavoastra.

www.artizanescu.ro/ceramica-de-cucuteni_pagina >  ARTIZANESCU.RO este un magazin online de traditii romanesti, proprietate a S.C. Mateescu Edit S.R.L. (Editura MATEESCU), unde iubitorii culturii populare de la noi pot gasi obiecte lucrate manual, facute cu migala si pricepere de catre mesteri de pe tot cuprinsul tarii.

Prin demersul nostru incercam sa aducem in casele oamenilor de aici, dar mai ales celor plecati peste mari si tari, la munca sau stabiliti in strainatate, un colt, cat de mic, din Patria lor, in speranta ca dorul de glia strabuna le va fi alinat.

In perioada 27-29 iunie 2014, în Parcul Copou din Iaşi, a avut loc cea de-a XXXII-a ediţie a Târgului naţional de ceramică „CUCUTENI 5000” 

Povestea Târgului de ceramica “COCOSUL DE HUREZ” începe în vara anului 1971 pe malul batrânului Alutus, atunci când organizatorii Festivalului de folclor “Cântecele Oltului” au avut harul să adauge la această sărbatoare a cântecului, jocului şi portului popular, sărbătoarea lutului, a lutului care prinde viaţă în mâinile fermecate ale meşterilor olari. Începând cu 1974 (a IV-a editie), Târgul este aşezat în vatra lui firească, la Horezu, locul unde se desfăşoară – Parcul de la stejarii seculari – oferind fiecărui participant spaţii pentru a-şi expune lucrările. Prin invitarea la târg a olarilor din celelalte centre românesti, maghiare si săseşti, se realizează o foarte buna viziune de ansamblu a olaritului contemporan.

Consiliul Judeţean Argeş şi Muzeul Viticulturii şi Pomiculturii – Goleşti organizează, în perioada 9 – 20 iulie, 2012, atelierul de creaţie populară Arta olăritului – Ceramica de Cucuteni, ediţia a II-a, sub coordonarea artistului plastic Ion Mitroi, din Roşiorii de Vede, judeţul Teleorman.

www.facebook.com/ceramica-gabi-vacuta

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166-180:The Antonine Plague >Marcomannic Wars. 250-270:The Plague of Cyprian >First Gothic Wars >>The Liberation of Dacia and the end of Rome. 540~750:the Plague of Justinian, 50% population drop >The Slavization of the Balkans. 535–536: Extreme weather events. The continuity of ‘Magna Dacia’.

All the big ‘barbarian’ migrations, were preceded by plagues and social problems. Migrants replaced populations decimated by plagues, plagues definitely killed more people than wars and ‘barbarian killings’. ‘Barbarians’ replaced palace civilizations with rural civilizations, they replaced centralized societies based on slavery and inequities with more decentralized and democratic  societies.

Goths, slavs, huns, avars and so on, were in fact mixed and numerous tribes, with a continuous substratum and changing military elites. They all gained momentum in the ‘Old Europe’/Magna Dacia area, the Carpathian-Danubian human reservoir plus the 2 main R1a launching pads ie the NW Pontic steppes & the Pannonian  steppes. They all started in the same area, the area which first repopulated Europe after the last Ice Age, the area that produced the largest European population – the geto-thraces, from where the celts colonised Western Europe, returning back in the end as various ‘Germanic tribes’ to finish the Roman Empire, together with the Free Dacians. All these tribes had a continuous substratum based on the Old Europe population, with the epicenter in present day Romania, the ‘Dacian epicenter’, with different R1b and R1a mixtures. Some of these FEDERATIONS had more R1b elites – celts, goths, germanic tribes, some had more R1a elites – scyths, sarmatians, ‘huns’, avars, slavs, bulgars, with very small asian mixtures – the real huns, the real bulgarians, and later the real Hungarians ..

The conquest of the Dacian gold mines was the last big Roman victory, the retreat from Dacia was first of Rome’s long-term possessions to be abandoned. The death of Decebal in 106 was only the beginning of a continuous pressure from the Free Dacian areas, so many attacks/wars with 2 big waves in 166-180 and in 250-270, which led to the Liberation of Dacia and eventually to the end of the Roman empire.

The plagues contributed to the ethnogenesis of present day nations. Urban and  plain areas were of course more exposed to plague decimation, (and to military occupation / decimation) than rural, mountain areas. Decimated areas were filled up with ‘barbarian’ migrants, the Dacian/Carpathian epicenter had the best continuity while the Pontic, the Pannonic and the South of the Danube plains were filled up with more slavic, bulgarian and hungarian migrants.


0] Demography. (to be researched). Historians’ estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000. (!?) Free Dacia had probably a population 2 times bigger than the population of Roman Dacia, ie 1,2 to 2,4 million. The Pannonian planes plus NW Pontic plains another 1,2-2,4millions. The Antonine Plague killed an estimated 5 million people. The Plague of Cyprian  probably killed another 5 million people. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian caused Europe’s population to drop by around 50% between 541 and 700.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_demography > Late Antiquity saw various indicators of Roman civilization begin to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, and total population. Only 40% as many Mediterranean shipwrecks have been found for the 3rd century as for the 1st.[2] During the period from 150 to 400, the population of the Roman Empire is estimated[by whom?] to have fallen from 70 million to 50 million, a decline of almost 30%. Proximate causes of the population decrease include the Antonine Plague, Plague of Cyprian, and the Crisis of the Third Century. European population probably reached a minimum during the Extreme weather events of 535–536 and the ensuing Plague of Justinian. Some have connected this demographic transition to the Migration Period Pessimum, when there was a decrease in global temperatures that impaired agricultural yields. The Early Middle Ages saw a continued de-urbanization of the population, but relatively little population growth because of continued political instability with Viking expansion in the north, Arab expansion in the south and to the east Slavs and Magyars.[1] This rural, uncertain life spurred the development of feudalism and the Christianization of Europe.Estimates of the total population of Europe are speculative, but at the time of Charlemagne it is thought to have been between 25 and 30 million, and of this more than half were in the Carolingian Empire that covered modern France, the Low Countries, western Germany, Austria, Slovenia, northern Italy and part of northern Spain.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_demography > The population of the entire Greek civilization (Greece, the Greek-speaking populations of Sicily, the coast of western Asia Minor, and the Black Sea) in the 4th century BC was recently estimated to be 8,000,000 to 10,000,000. This is over ten times the population of Greece during the 8th century BC, about 700,000 people. The population of Sicily is estimated to range from about 600,000 to 1 million in the 5th century BC. The island was urbanized, and its largest city alone, the city of Syracuse, having 125,000 inhabitants or about 12% to 20% of the total population living on the island. With the other 5 cities probably having populations of over 20,000, the total urban population could have reached 50% of the total population.

There are many estimates of the population for the Roman Empire, that range from 45 million to 120 million with 55-65 million as the classical figure. More modern estimates place this number at the higher end (80-120 million). Russell’s 1958 estimate for the population of the empire in 1 AD: Total Empire – 46.9m. European part – 25m. Asian part – 13.2m. North African part – 8.7m. European areas outside the Empire – 7.9m. Estimates for the population of mainland Italia, including Gallia Cisalpina, at the beginning of the 1st Century AD range from 6,000,000 according to Beloch in 1886, 6,830,000 according to Russell in 1958, less than 10,000,000 according to Hin in 2007,[13] and 14,000,000 according to Lo Cascio in 2009


1] The Free Dacians. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Dacia >>  The Free Dacians who bordered the roman province, allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus through to Caracalla (180-217 AD), the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi, a Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths, who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, becoming the first of Rome’s long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Goths, Taifali, Bastarns together with the Carpi in 248-250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, the Goths and Heruli in 267 and 269.[3][4] Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus (253-268), but they also report that it was Aurelian (270-275) who relinquished Dacia Traiana. He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bastarnae >> +R1b+R1a >> The ethno-linguistic affiliation of the Bastarnae was probably Germanic, which is supported by ancient historians and modern archeology.[1][2] However, some ancient literary sources imply Celtic or Scytho-Sarmatian influences.[2] The most likely scenario is that they were originally a group of East Germanic tribes, originally resident in the lower Vistula river valley.[3][4] In ca. 200 BC, these tribes then migrated, possibly accompanied by some Celtic elements, southeastwards into the North Pontic region. Some elements appear to have become assimilated, to some extent, by the surrounding Sarmatians by the 3rd century.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roxolani >> +R1a >> In the mid-1st century AD, the Roxolani began incursions across the Danube into Roman territory. One such raid in AD 68/69 was intercepted by the Legio III Gallica with Roman auxiliaries, who destroyed a raiding force of 9,000 Roxolanian cavalry encumbered by baggage. The Roxolani avenged themselves in AD 92, when they joined the Dacians in destroying the Roman Legio XXI Rapax. During Trajan’s Dacian Wars, the Roxolani at first sided with the Dacians, providing them with most of their cavalry strength, but they were defeated in the first campaign of AD 101–102. They appear to have stood aside as neutrals during Trajan’s final campaign of AD 105–106, which ended in the complete destruction of the Dacian state. The creation of the Roman province of Dacia brought Roman power to the very doorstep of Roxolani territory. The Emperor Hadrian reinforced a series of pre-existing fortifications and built numerous forts along the Danube to contain the Roxolani threat. They are known to have attacked the Roman Province of Pannonia in 260; shortly afterwards contingents of Roxolani troops entered Roman military service. Like other Sarmatian peoples, the Roxolani were conquered by the Huns in the mid-4th century.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Costoboci >> +R1a+R1b >> The origin of the Costoboci is uncertain.[60] The mainstream view is that they were a Dacian tribe, among the so-called “Free Dacians” not subjected to Roman rule.[61][62][63]However some scholars suggested they were Sarmatian,[64][13] Slavic,[65] Germanic,[66] Celtic,[citation needed] or Dacian with a Celtic superstratum. During the period 400-200 BC, Transylvania and Bessarabia saw intensive Celtic settlement, as evidenced by heavy concentrations of La Tène-type cemeteries.[91]Central Transylvania appears to have become a Celtic enclave or unitary kingdom, according to Batty.[92] Ptolemy lists 3 tribes as present in Transylvania: (west to east): the Taurisci, Anartes and Costoboci.[93] The first two are generally considered by scholars to be of Celtic origin. The Lipitsa culture displays numerous Celtic features. The presence, throughout the region identified by ancient geographers as inhabited by the Costoboci (SW Ukraine, northern Moldavia and Bessarabia), interspersed among the sites of sedentary cultures such as Lipitsa, of distinct Sarmatian-style inhumation cemeteries dating from the 1st and 2nd centuries AD….The Costoboci have been linked, on the basis of their geographical location, with the Lipiţa culture.[71][72][73] This culture’s features, especially its pottery styles and burial customs, have been identified as Dacian by some scholars,[74][75] leading to the conclusion that the Costoboci were an ethnic-Dacian tribe.[76]According to Jazdewski, in the early Roman period, on the Upper Dniestr, the features of the Lipita culture indicate ethnic Thracians under strong Celtic cultural influence, or who had simply absorbed Celtic ethnic components.[77]

In AD 167 the Roman legion V Macedonica, returning from the Parthian War, moved its headquarters from Troesmis in Moesia Inferior to Potaissa in Dacia Porolissensis,[97][98] to defend the Dacian provinces against the Marcomannic attacks. Taking the opportunity,[99] in 170[100][88][101] or 171,[88][102] the Costoboci invaded Roman territory.[89] Meeting little opposition, they swept through and raided the provinces of Moesia Inferior, Moesia Superior, Thracia, Macedonia and Achaea, they reached Athens where they sacked the famous shrine of the Mysteries at Eleusis. In the same period the Costoboci may have attacked Dacia. Soon after AD 170,[126] the Vandal Astingi, under their kings, Raus and Raptus, occupied the territory of the Costoboci but they were soon attacked by another Vandal tribe, the Lacringi.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iazyges >> +R1a >> The Iazyges (Jazyges is an orthographic variant) were an ancient Iranian nomadic tribe. Known also as Jaxamatae, Ixibatai, Iazygite, Jászok and Ászi, they were a branch of the Sarmatian people who, c. 200 BC, swept westward from Central Asia onto the steppes of what is now Ukraine.[1] Little is known about their language, but it was one of the Iranian languages. The Iazyges first make their appearance along the Sea of Azov, known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans as the Maeotis. They are referred to by the geographer Ptolemy as the Iazyges Metanastae (wandering or migrant Iazyges). From there, the Iazyges moved west along the shores of the Black Sea to what is now Moldova and the southwestern Ukraine. They served as allies of Mithradates VI Eupator, king of Pontus (in what is now North-Western Turkey), in his wars against the Romans (c. 88–84 BC). In 78–76 BC, the Romans sent a punitive expedition over the Danube in an attempt to overawe the Iazyges. The prime enemy of Rome along the lower Danube at this time were the Dacians. When the Dacian kingdom built up by Burebista began to collapse, the Romans took advantage and encouraged the Iazyges to settle in the Pannonian plain, between the Danube and the Tisa Rivers. They were divided into freemen and serfs (Sarmatae Limigantes). These serfs had a different manner of life and were probably an older settled population, enslaved by nomadic masters. The Romans wanted to finish off Dacia, but the Iazyges refused to cooperate. The Iazyges remained nomads, herding their cattle across what is now southern Romania every summer to water them along the Black Sea; a Roman conquest of Dacia would cut that route. In 92 May the Iazyges shattered the Roman Legio XXI Rapax. In 107, Trajan sent his general, Hadrian, to force the Iazyges to submit. In 117, Trajan died, and was succeeded as emperor by Hadrian, who moved to consolidate and protect his predecessor’s gains. While the Romans kept Dacia, the Iazyges stayed independent, accepting a client relationship with Rome. In the summer of 166, while the Romans were tied down in a war with Parthia, the peoples north of the Danube, the Marcomanni, the Naristi, the Vandals, the Hermanduri, the Lombards and the Quadi, all swept south over the Danube to invade and plunder the exposed Roman provinces. The Iazyges joined in this general onslaught in which they killed Calpurnius Proculus, the Roman governor of Dacia. The Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius spent the rest of his life trying to restore the situation (see the Marcomannic Wars). In 170, the Iazyges defeated and killed Claudius Fronto, Roman governor of Lower Moesia. Operating from Sirmium (today Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) on the Sava river, Marcus Aurelius moved against the Iazyges personally. After hard fighting, the Iazyges were pressed to their limits.


2] 166-180:The Antonine Plague>Marcomannic Wars. The 161-166 war with Parthia had unforeseen and great consequences for the Roman Empire. The returning troops brought with them a plague, the so-called Antonine Plague, which would eventually kill an estimated 5 million people,[4] severely weakening the Empire.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/166 >> End of the war with Parthia: The Parthians leave Armenia and eastern Mesopotamia, which both become Roman protectorates. A plague (possibly small pox), comes from the East and spreads throughout the Roman Empire, lasting for roughly twenty years. The Lombards invade Pannonia (modern Hungary). They are quickly dispatched by the Roman Army. Dacia is invaded by barbarians. Conflict erupts on the Danube frontier between Rome and the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni.

wiki/Marcomannic_Wars >> The Marcomannic Wars (Latin: bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum, “German and Sarmatian War”)[1][2] were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about 166 until 180. Roman expedition against the Iazyges and the Germanic invasion of Italy. In the autumn of 169 the Romans had gathered their forces and intended to subdue the independent tribes especially the Iazyges but the Iazyges defeat and kill Claudius Fronto, Roman governor of Lower Moesia. In the same time to the east, the Costoboci crossed the Danube, ravaged Thrace and descended the Balkans, reaching Eleusis, near Athens. The most important and dangerous invasion however, was that of the Marcomanni in the west. Their leader, Ballomar, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes. They crossed the Danube and won a decisive victory over a force of 20,000 Roman soldiers near Carnuntum. Ballomar then led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, while the remainder ravaged Noricum. The Marcomanni razed Opitergium (Oderzo) and besieged Aquileia. This was the first time hostile forces had entered Italy since 101 BC, when Gaius Marius defeated the Cimbri and Teutones. In 175 the Romans focused their attention on the Iazyges living in the plain of the river Tisza (expeditio sarmatica). After a few victories, a treaty was signed. According to its terms, the Iazyges King Zanticus delivered 100,000 Roman prisoners and, in addition, provided 8,000 auxiliary cavalrymen, most of whom (5,500) were sent to Britain.[10][11]Upon this, Marcus assumed the victory title “Sarmaticus“. The war had exposed the weakness of Rome’s northern frontier, and henceforth, half of the Roman legions (16 out of 33) would be stationed along the Danube and the Rhine. Numerous Germans settled in frontier regions like Dacia, Pannonia, Germany and Italy itself. The Germanic tribes were temporally checked, but the Marcomannic Wars were only the prelude of the invasions that would eventually disassemble and end the Western Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries.

3] 250-270:The Plague of Cyprian > First Gothic Wars en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonine_Plague >> according to the Roman historian Dio Cassius, the plague caused up to 2,000 deaths a day in Rome, one quarter of those infected. Total deaths have been estimated at five million.[4] The Antonine Plague of 165–180  killed as much as one-third of the population in some areas and devastated the Roman army. Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776–1831) concluded that ”The ancient world never recovered from the blow inflicted on it by the plague which visited it in the reign of M. Aurelius.” According to the 5th-century Spanish writer Paulus Orosius many towns and villages in the Italian peninsula and the European provinces lost all their inhabitants.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plague_of_Cyprian >> The Plague of Cyprian is the name given to a pandemic, probably of smallpox, that afflicted the Roman Empire from AD 250 onwards during the larger Crisis of the Third Century.[1] It was still raging in 270, when it claimed the life of emperor Claudius II Gothicus. The plague caused widespread manpower shortages in agriculture and the Roman army. Some modern scholars believe that this plague may have been a key driving force behind the spread of Christianity in the Empire. In 250 to 266, at the height of the outbreak, 5,000 people a day were said to be dying in Rome. The plague still raged in AD 270: in the account of the wars against Goths waged by Claudius Gothicus given in the Historia Augusta it is reported that “the survivors of the barbarian tribes, who had gathered in Mount Haemus in the Balkans, were so stricken with famine and pestilence that Claudius now scorned to conquer them further”. And “during this same period the Scythians attempted to plunder in Crete and Cyprus as well, but everywhere their armies were likewise stricken with pestilence and so were defeated.”

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crisis_of_the_Third_Century > 4] The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis, (AD 235–284) was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression. The Crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Alexander Severus at the hands of his own troops, initiating a fifty-year period in which 20–25 claimants to the title of Emperor, mostly prominent Roman army generals, assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. 26 men were officially accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor during this period, and thus became legitimate emperors. By 258–260, the Empire split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire, including the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and (briefly) Hispania; the Palmyrene Empire, including the eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus; and the Italian-centered and independent Roman Empire, proper, between them.Later, Aurelian (270–275) reunited the empire; the Crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletianin 284.

With the onset of the Crisis of the Third Century, however, this vast internal trade network broke down. Before the crisis an interchange of goods between the various provinces reached a scale unprecedented in previous history and not repeated until a few centuries. After the crisis large landowners, no longer able to successfully export their crops over long distances, began producing food for subsistence and local barter. Rather than import manufactured goods from the empire’s great urban areas, they began to manufacture many goods locally, often on their own estates, thus beginning the self-sufficient “house economy” that would become commonplace in later centuries, reaching its final form in the Middle Ages’ manorialism. The common free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, began to move out into the countryside in search of food and better protection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many of these former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, were forced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order to receive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, they became a half-free class of Roman citizen known as coloni. They were tied to the land, and in later Imperial law their status was made hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom, the origins of medieval feudal society and of the medieval peasantry.


5] The ‘Dacian’ Emperors. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regalianus > Regalianus (died 260) was a Dacian general [3] who turned against the Roman Empire and became himself emperor.  About his origin, the Tyranni Triginta says he was a Dacian, a kinsman of Decebalus.[4] He probably was of senatorial rank, and had received military promotion from the Emperor Valerian. The local population, facing the threat of theSarmatians, elected Regalianus emperor,[7] who raised his wife, Sulpicia Dryantilla, who was of noble lineage, to the rank of Augustato strengthen his position.[5] Regalianus bravely fought thereafter against the Sarmatians. Short time after his victory, he was killed by a coalition of his own people and of the Roxolani.[5]

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aureolus > Manius Acilius Aureolus (died 268) was a Roman military commander and would-be usurper. He was one of the so-called Thirty Tyrants who populated the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. Of humble Daco-Roman origins, he was ‘made’ by the Emperor Gallienus and proved himself to be one of the most brilliant and innovative soldiers of the age. However, he later turned against his benefactor, and was destroyed in the political turmoil that surrounded the Emperor’s assassination in a conspiracy orchestrated by his senior officers. Zonaras says that he was a herdsman[5] born in the Roman province of Dacia, north of the Danube. It may be conjectured that, like many Dacians, he enlisted in the Roman Army as a young man and had the good fortune to come to the attention of the Emperor Gallienus. When Gallienus was murdered it is possible Aureolus made his own bid for the Purple if a rather obscure issue of coinage is to be believed. However, as Aureolus had earlier offered his allegiance to Postumus it seems likely that he made this last defiant gesture – if indeed he did make it – only when Postumus failed to take advantage of the turmoil in Italy. Aureolus’s end came when he surrendered to Claudius Gothicus. However, apparently before Claudius could decide what to do with him, Aureolus was murdered by Claudius’s Praetorian Guard, supposedly in revenge for Aureolus’s rebellion against Gallienus. 

<formula-as.ro/imparatii-daci-ai-romei> Intrat ca soldat de rand in armata romana, a castigat simpatia imparatului Valerianus si a ajuns ingrijitor al cavaleriei. Dupa ce a castigat si increderea lui Gallienus (succesorul lui Valerian la tron), a fost trimis de imparat in anul 265 sa lupte impotriva unui uzurpator din Galia, Postumus, dar Aureolus s-a aliat cu acesta impotriva imparatului de la Roma. A fost proclamat suveran la Mediolanum de catre armatele sale, in anul 268. Totul se petrecea in plina criza politica a imperiului, celebra criza a secolului al Iii-lea, cand s-au succedat la tronul Romei o multime de imparati, mai toti provinciali, mai adesea sprijiniti de armata. Gallienus a pornit impotriva celui de-al doilea dac autoproclamat imparat, Aureolus, care i-a cerut ajutor lui Postumus. Acesta insa l-a refuzat, tradand prietenia care ii lega. Totusi, cel care a murit in asediul de la Mediolanum a fost Gallienus, iar Aureolus a reusit sa-si pastreze titlul, pana in vremea lui Aurelian, dar a fost tradat si ucis, ca si Regalian, de propriii lui soldati.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galerius > Galerius was born in Serdica,[13] though some modern scholars consider the strategic site where he later built his palace named after his mother – Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad) – his birth and funeral place.[10] His father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Dacia because of the Carpians‘ attacks. He later campaigned across the Danube against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300. He served with distinction as a soldier under Emperors Aurelian and Probus, and in 293 at the establishment of the Tetrarchy, was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian‘s daughter Valeria (later known as Galeria Valeria), and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces. After a few years campaigning against Sarmatians and Goths on the Danube, he received command of the legions on the eastern Imperial limits.

According to Lactantius, Galerius affirmed his Dacian identity and avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name once made emperor, even proposing that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian Empire, much to the horror of the patricians and senators. He exhibited anti-Roman attitude as soon as he had attained the highest power, treating the Roman citizens with ruthless cruelty, like the conquerors treated the conquered, all in the name of the same treatment that the victorious Trajan had applied to the conquered Dacians, forefathers of Galerius, two centuries before.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licinius > Licinius I (Latin: Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;[note 1][3][4] c. 263 – 325), was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For the majority of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of Milan that granted official toleration to Christians in the Roman Empire. He was finally defeated at the Battle of Chrysopolis, before being executed on the orders of Constantine I. Born to a Dacian peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 298.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximinus_II > Maximinus II also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313. He became embroiled in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy between rival claimants for control of the empire, in which he was defeated by Licinius. He was born of Dacian peasant stock to the sister of the emperor Galerius near their family lands around Felix Romuliana, a rural area then in the Danubian region of Moesia, now Eastern Serbia. He rose to high distinction after joining the army.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinian_dynasty > The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire from Constantius Chlorus (†305) to the death of Julian in 363. It is named after its most famous member, Constantine the Great who became the sole ruler of the empire in 324.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_the_Great > Constantine the Great was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire.[5] He built a new imperial residence atByzantium and named it New Rome. However, in Constantine’s honor, the Romans called it Constantinople, which would later be the capital of what is now known as the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years. His father was Flavius Constantius, a native of Dardania province of Moesia (later Dacia Ripensis). Constantine’s mother was Helena, a Thracian woman of low social standing. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Constantine > On the top side of the Arch of Constantine, large sculptures representing Dacians can be seen.

formula-as.ro/2007/imparatii-daci-ai-romei > Dar cel mai mare imparat roman de origine dacica este Constantin, primul imparat crestin din istorie. S-a nascut la sud de Dunare, la Naissus, in Serbia de astazi, pe atunci provincia Moesia Superior. Tatal sau, imparatul Constantius Chlorus, era tot din Naissus. In anul 325, in vremea conciliului de la Niceea, la Naissus este atestat un episcop care isi spune “Dacus”. Prezenta dacilor la sudul Dunarii, atat inainte de cucerirea Daciei cat si dupa aceea, este incontestabila. Deci, Constantin era, mai exact, un moeso-dac. Desi nu stim in ce fel dacismul sau i-a influentat actiunile, stim sigur un lucru: el este cel care, la doar doua secole dupa cucerirea Daciei, spoliaza monumentele din splendidul for al lui Traian. Marea friza de piatra a lui Traian, masurand peste 30 de metri (dupa altii mult mai mult) si fiind a treia ca marime din intreaga antichitate, este sparta in bucati de Constantin. Patru bucati sunt incastrate in arcul sau de triumf de la Roma, dupa ce figura lui Traian este stearsa din reprezentarile reliefurilor. Mai mult, opt din grandioasele statui de daci, inalte de trei metri, care impodobeau forul lui Traian, sunt scoase de la locul lor si urcate pe Arcul imparatului Constantin. Ce logica sa aiba dislocarea unor statui colosale de daci si plasarea lor pe un monument al unui imparat roman, daca nu faptul ca acesta era nascut tot in tara dacilor? Cu siguranta, Constantin avea o mare pretuire pentru stramosii sai. Documentele ne spun chiar ca ar fi incercat sa aduca Dacia sub stapanirea sa si a refacut podul de peste Dunare. Totusi, cum de a fost posibila aceasta “profanare” a forului lui Traian? Specialistii spun ca era nevoie de material de constructie si ca, in acelasi timp, nu mai existau artisti talentati ca in vremurile anterioare, arta romana aflandu-se intr-un declin evident. E adevarat, pe langa piesele luate din forul lui Traian, pe Arcul lui Constantin exista si reliefuri atribuite de specialisti epocilor lui Hadrian si Marc Aureliu. Deci, Constantin ar fi luat ce i-a placut de pe monumentele predecesorilor sai. Iulian Apostatul ne povesteste ca, dupa ce a vazut pentru prima data forul lui Traian, Constantin a fost abatut timp de mai multe zile, spunand ca el nu va avea niciodata un for atat de grandios. Dar nu este suficienta aceasta explicatie. Oricat de mare ar fi fost lipsa de materiale si de artisti talentati, nici un imparat nu ar fi indraznit sa distruga monumentele unui predecesor, daca acesta era pretuit, memoria sa era onorata si facea parte din galeria sacra a parintilor Romei. Gestul atat de neobisnuit si de socant al plasarii celor opt statui de daci pe Arcul de triumf al lui Constantin isi gaseste in acest fel o explicatie. Statuile de pe arc simbolizeaza obarsia dacica, mandra si iubitoare de libertate, a imparatului. Din aceasta perspectiva, nu ar fi deloc absurd sa ne gandim ca scrierea de capatai a lui Traian despre cucerirea Daciei a disparut, ca si celelalte scrieri ce relateaza acest eveniment dramatic din istoria dacilor, din ordinul lui Constantin. Daca Galerius nu a contribuit la disparitia acestor scrieri, se poate sa o fi facut Constantin.

Constantin cel Mare este cel care a mutat capitala imperiului la Byzantion, numit dupa moartea sa Constantinopol, iar dupa cucerirea de catre turci, in sec. Xv, Istanbul. Orientul a devenit astfel izvorul spiritual si cultural al intregii Europe. In vreme ce occidentul bajbaia in intunericul in care barbarii migratori l-au aruncat, in orient straluceau luminile Bizantului crestin, Noua Roma. Cat de mult a contribuit dacismul lui Constantin la aceasta transferare a gloriei romane in orient este foarte greu de spus. Dar dacii de pe Arcul lui Constantin vegheaza vechea Roma si astazi, semn al dainuirii spiritului dac peste timp.
Elena, mama lui Constantin, era nascuta, se pare, in Asia Mica, intr-o familie foarte modesta. A avut o legatura neoficiala cu Constantius Chlorus, viitorul imparat, si l-a nascut pe Constantin in teritoriul dacic de la sudul Dunarii. Scrierile vechi spun ca Elena a contribuit foarte mult la intarirea crestinismului ca religie a imperiului. Ea a primit titlul de Augusta. Calatorind la Ierusalim, se spune ca a descoperit resturile crucii lui Isus, pe care le-a adus la Roma. Descoperirea s-a facut in urma unor sapaturi pe care ea insasi le-a comandat si coordonat. De aceea, astazi, Sfanta Elena este patroana arheologilor. Sarcofagul sau din porfir rosu egiptean se afla la Muzeul Vatican, in sala numita “Crucea greceasca”. Este ornamentat, in mod destul de bizar, cu scene de lupta. Intre soldatii reprezentati se disting cu claritate figuri de daci, cu inconfundabilele lor caciuli. Sfintii imparati Constantin si Elena, praznuiti de Biserica Ortodoxa la 21 mai, au schimbat definitiv cursul istoriei.

Falsificarea istoriei. Se impune o intrebare: de ce manualele de istorie nu pomenesc nimic despre rolul dacilor in istoria imperiului roman? A existat si continua sa existe o adevarata conspiratie in jurul acestui subiect. Istoricii nostri, dar si unii straini, in special maghiari, au facut tot posibilul pentru a “demonta” originea dacica a unor personaje ajunse pe tronul imparatiei romane. Despre mama lui Galeriu s-a spus ca era o barbara, ba roxolana, ba ilira, ba, in cazul cel mai bun, daca romanizata, desi sursele ne spun raspicat ca era daca de la nordul Dunarii, chiar daca avea nume latin. Despre informatiile pe care ni le da Lactantiu cu privire la Galeriu s-a spus ca nu merita sa fie luate de bune. Despre cele din “Historia Augusta”, care ne atesta originea dacica a lui Regalian, la fel, ca ar fi vorba de niste nascociri. De ce toate acestea? Din doua motive diferite, dar cu un unic scop. Unii istorici maghiari, in frunte cu A. Alfldi (1940), au vrut sa demonstreze ca, dupa abandonarea provinciei, in Dacia nu a mai ramas nici un dac si ca nu a existat nici un fel de continuitate de-a lungul mileniului “intunecat”, pana la venirea maghiarilor in Transilvania. Aparitia unor personaje istorice importante, de obarsie dacica, le incurca socotelile, si au recurs la contestarea surselor documentare, pentru a demonstra ca nu este vorba de daci autentici. Istoricii romani, in schimb, au cautat sa demonstreze ca, dupa abandonarea Daciei, toata populatia ramasa in provincie era deja complet romanizata. Prin urmare, si imparatii de origine dacica trebuiau sa fie tot romani. La acea vreme, “nu trebuiau” sa mai existe decat romani, eventual proveniti din stramosi daci romanizati. Dar faptul ca scrierile la care ne-am referit insista asupra originii dacice a acestor imparati ne arata cu claritate ca ei nu erau daci integral si definitiv romanizati, ci originea lor etnica era foarte importanta. Cunosteau, desigur, limba latina, erau integrati in societatea romana provinciala, dar obarsia lor era dacica. Daca ar fi fost daci complet romanizati, fara sa mai poarte vreo mostenire dacica, li s-ar fi spus romani, pur si simplu, fara prea multa insistenta pe originea etnica. Probabil din acest motiv, istorici precum Constantin Daicoviciu, Radu Vulpe si altii au contestat dacismul lui Regalian ori al lui Galerius (despre Constantin nici nu se discuta, dat fiind ca s-a nascut la sudul Dunarii). Radu Vulpe chiar a insistat asupra faptului ca mama lui Galeriu, Romula, nu era daca, ci provenea dintr-o familie de colonisti iliri stabiliti in Dacia, desi nici un document nu sugera asa ceva. Dupa trei decenii, intr-o alta lucrare a aceluiasi istoric, Romula “devenea” o daca romanizata. In schimb, Dimitrie Cantemir nu se sfia sa-l numeasca pe Aureolus “hatmanul calarimii Avreulus Dacul”. Deci, atat pe istoricii maghiari, cat si pe cei romani, ii deranja existenta unor daci dupa retragerea romanilor din Dacia. Si intr-un caz, si in celalalt, s-a dorit inlaturarea dacilor din istorie, prin incalcarea adevarului stiintific furnizat de izvoarele scrise. Aceasta falsificare persista pana astazi, iar istoria oficiala nu recunoaste originea dacica a acestor imparati. Stergerea dacilor din istorie pare sa fie urmarea unui blestem ce s-a nascut demult, dar continua si astazi. Istoricii nostri desavarsesc opera celor ce au ars scrierile despre daci si i-au lasat intr-un intuneric ce pare sa nu se mai sfarseasca.


6] The ‘Goth’ Federations. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goths >> The first incursion of the Roman Empire that can be attributed to Goths is the sack of Histria in 238. Several such raids followed in subsequent decades,[48] in particular the Battle of Abrittus in 251, led by Cniva, in which the Roman Emperor Decius was killed. At the time, there were at least two groups of Goths: the Thervingi and the Greuthungi. Goths were subsequently heavily recruited into the Roman Army to fight in the Roman-Persian Wars, notably participating at the Battle of Misiche in 242. The first seaborne raids took place in three subsequent years, probably 255-257. An unsuccessful attack on Pityus was followed in the second year by another which sacked by Pityus and Trapezus and ravaged large area in the Pontus. In the third year a much larger force devastated large areas of Bithynia and the Propontis, including the cities of Chalcedon, Nicomedia, Nicaea, Apamea, Cius and Prusa. After a 10-year gap, the Goths, along with the Heruli, another Germanic tribe from Scandinavia, raiding on 500 ships,[49]sacked Heraclea Pontica, Cyzicus and Byzantium. They were defeated by the Roman navy but managed to escape into the Aegean Sea, where they ravaged the islands of Lemnos and Scyros, broke through Thermopylae and sacked several cities of southern Greece (province of Achaea) including Athens, Corinth, Argos, Olympia and Sparta. Then an Athenian militia, led by the historian Dexippus, pushed the invaders to the north where they were intercepted by the Roman army under Gallienus.[50] He won an important victory near the Nessos (Nestos) river, on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace, the Dalmatian cavalry of the Roman army earning a reputation as good fighters. Reported barbarian casualties were 3,000 men.[51] Subsequently, the Heruli leader Naulobatus came to terms with the Romans.[49] The second and larger sea-borne invasion was an enormous coalition consisting of Goths (Greuthungi and Thervingi), Gepids and Peucini, led again by the Heruli, assembled at the mouth of river Tyras (Dniester).[53] The Augustan History and Zosimus claim a total number of 2,000–6,000 ships and 325,000 men.[54] This is probably a gross exaggeration but remains indicative of the scale of the invasion. They ravaged down to the Aegean islands as far as Crete, Rhodes and Cyprus. The fleet probably also sacked Troy and Ephesus, destroying the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. While their main force had constructed siege works and was close to taking the cities of Thessalonica and Cassandreia, they heard the news that the emperor was advancing. The Goths first attempted to directly invade Italy than they retreated to the Balkan interior. They are engaged near Naissus by a Roman army led by emperor Claudius advancing from the north. The battle most likely took place in 269, and was fiercely contested. Large numbers on both sides were killed but, at the critical point, the Romans tricked the Goths into an ambush by pretended flight. Some 50,000 Goths were allegedly killed or taken captive and their base at Thessalonika destroyed.[51] It seems that Aurelian who was in charge of all Roman cavalry during Claudius’ reign, led the decisive attack in the battle. Some survivors were resettled within the empire, while others were incorporated into the Roman army. The battle ensured the survival of the Roman Empire for another two centuries. In 270, after the death of Claudius, Goths under the leadership of Cannabaudes again launch an invasion on the Roman Empire, but were defeated by Aurelian, who however surrendered Dacia beyond the Danube.

In the late 4th century, the Huns came from the east and invaded the region controlled by the Goths. Although the Huns successfully subdued many of the Goths, who joined their ranks, a group of Goths led by Fritigern fled across the Danube. They then revolted against the Roman Empire, winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Adrianople. By this time the Gothic missionary Wulfila, who devised the Gothic alphabet to translate the Bible, had converted many of the Goths from paganism toArian Christianity. In the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries the Goths separated into two main branches, the Visigoths, who becamefederates of the Romans, and the Ostrogoths, who joined the Huns.

The Visigoths under Alaric I sacked Rome in 410, defeated Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451, and founded a kingdom in Aquitaine. The Visigoths were pushed to Hispania by the Franks following the Battle of Vouillé in 507. By the late 6th century, the Visigoths had converted to Catholicism. They were conquered in the early 8th century by the Muslim Moors, but began to regain control under the leadership of the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius, whose victory at the Battle of Covadonga began the centuries-long Reconquista. The Visigoths founded the Kingdom of Asturias, which eventually evolved into modern Spain and Portugal.[7] 

After the Ostrogoths successfully revolted against the Huns at the Battle of Nedao in 454, their leader Theodoric the Great settled his people in Italy, founding a kingdom which eventually gained control of the whole peninsula. Shortly after Theodoric’s death in 526, the country was captured by the Byzantine Empire, in a war that devastated and depopulated the peninsula.[6]After their able leader Totila was killed at the Battle of Taginae, effective Ostrogothic resistance ended, and the remaining Goths were assimilated by the Lombards, another Germanic tribe, who invaded Italy and founded a kingdom in the northern part of the country in 567 AD.


 

7] The ‘Slav’ Federations. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plague > The first plague pandemic from 541 to ~750, spreaded from Egypt to the Mediterranean and to the northwestern Europe, started with the Plague of Justinian.  At its peak the Plague of Justinian (AD 541–542) was killing 10,000 people in Constantinople every day and ultimately destroyed perhaps 40% of the city’s inhabitants. It went on to destroy up to a quarter of the human population of the eastern Mediterranean. In AD 588 a second major wave of plague spread through the Mediterranean into what is now France. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian killed as many as 100 million people across the world.[23][24] It caused Europe’s population to drop by around 50% between 541 and 700. It contributed to the success of the Arab conquests and to the slavization of the Balkans.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Slavs>  The Byzantines broadly grouped the numerous Slav tribes into two groups: the Sclaveni and Antes.[8] They are both first encountered in the lower Danube region. From the Danube, they commenced raiding the Byzantine Empire from the 520s, on an annual basis. Large scale Slavic settlement in the Balkans begins in the late 570s and early 580s.[11] Menander, a late 6th-century historian speaks of 100,000 Slavs pouring into Thrace (though likely with some exaggeration)[12] and Illyricum, taking cities and settling down. Most scholars consider the period of 581-584 as the beginning of large scale Slavic settlement in the Balkans. The Avars arrived in Europe in the late 550s.[11] Although their identity would not last, the Avars greatly impacted the events of the Balkans. They settled the Carpathian plain, west of the main Slavic settlements.[13] They crushed the Gepid Kingdom (a Germanic tribe) and pushed the Lombards into Italy, essentially opening up the western Balkans. They asserted their authority over many Slavs, who were divided into numerous petty tribes.[13] Many Slavs were relocated to the Avar base in the Carpathian basin and were galvanized into an effective infantry force. Other Slavic tribes continued to raid independently, sometime coordinating attacks as allies of the Avars. Others still spilled into Imperial lands as they fled from the Avars.[13] The Avars and their Slavic allies tended to focus on the western Balkans, whilst independent Slavic tribes predominated in the east. Following the unsuccessful siege of Constantinople in 626, the Avars’ reputation diminished, and the confederacy was troubled by civil wars between the Avars and their Bulgar and Slav clients.[16] Their rule contracted to the region of the Carpathian basin. Archaeological evidence show that there was intermixing of Slavic, Avar and even Gepid cultures, suggesting that the later Avars were an amalgamation of different peoples. The Avar Khanate finally collapsed after ongoing defeats at the hands of Franks, Bulgars and Slavs (c. 810), and the Avars ceased to exist. What remained of the Avars was absorbed by the Slavs and Bulgars.

Prior to the advent of Roman rule, a number of native or autochthonous populations had lived in the Balkans since ancient times. South of the Jireček line were the Greeks.[22] To the north, there were Illyrians in the western portion (Illyricum), Thracians in Thrace (modern Bulgaria and eastern Macedonia), and Dacians in Moesia (northern Bulgaria and northeastern Serbia) and Dacia (modern Romania).[23] They were mainly tribalistic and generally lacked awareness of any greater ethno-political affiliations. Over the classical ages, they were at times invaded, conquered and influenced by Celts, Greeks and Romans. Roman influence, however, was initially limited to cities later concentrated along the Dalmatian coast, later spreading to a few scattered cities inside the Balkan interior particularly along the river Danube (Sirmium, Belgrade, Niš).[24] Roman citizens from throughout the empire settled in these cities and in the adjacent countryside.[24] The vast hinterland was still populated by indigenous peoples who likely retained their own tribalistic character.

Only certain areas tended to be affected by the raids of the migrants (e.g. lands around major land routes, such as the Morava corridor).[18] The pre-Slavic inhabitants sought refuge inside fortified cities and islands, whilst others fled to remote mountains and forests,[18] joining their non-Romanized kin and adopting a transhumant pastoral lifestyle. The larger cities were able to persevere, even flourish, through the hard times. Archaeological evidence suggests that the culture in the cities changed whereby Roman-style forums and large public buildings were abandoned and cities were modified (i.e. built on top of hills or cliff-tops and fortified by walls). The centerpiece of such cities was the church. This transformation from a Roman culture to a Byzantine culture was paralleled by a rise of a new ruling class: the old land-owning aristocracy gave way to rule by military elites and the clergy. In addition to the autochthons, there were remnants of previous invaders such as “Huns” and various Germanic peoples when the Slavs arrived. Sarmatian tribes (such as the Iazyges) are recorded to have still lived in the Banat region of the Danube.[26]

As the Slavs spread south into the Balkans, they interacted with the numerous peoples and cultures already there. Since their lifestyle revolved around agriculture, they preferentially settled rural lands along the major highway networks which they moved along. Whilst they could not take the larger fortified towns, they looted the countryside and captured many prisoners. In his Strategikon, Pseudo-Maurice noted that it was commonplace for Slavs to accept newly acquired prisoners into their ranks.[27] Despite Byzantine accounts of “pillaging” and “looting”, it is possible that many indigenous peoples voluntarily assimilated with the Slavs. The Slavs lacked an organised, centrally ruled organisation which actually hastened the process of willful Slavicisation. The strongest evidence for such a co-existence is from archaeological remains along the Danube and Dacia known as the Ipoteşti-Cândeşti culture. Here, the villages dating back to the 6th century represent a continuity with the earlier Slavic Pen’kovka culture; modified by admixture with DacoGetic, Daco-Roman and/or Byzantine elements within the same village. Such interactions awarded the pre-Slavic populace protection within the ranks of a dominant, new tribe. In return, they contributed to the genetic and cultural development the South Slavs. This phenomenon ultimately led to an exchange of various loan-words.

Over time, due to the larger number of Slavs, the descendants most of the indigenous populations of the Balkans were Slavicized, an exception being Greece, where the smaller number Slavs scattered there came to be Hellenized over succeeding centuries (aided in time by more Greeks returning to Greece in the 9th century and the role of the church and administration).[28] The Romance speakers within the fortified Dalmatian cities managed to retain their culture and language for a long time,[29] as Dalmatian Romance was spoken until the high Middle Ages. However, they too were eventually assimilated into the body of Slavs. In contrast, the Romano-Dacians in Wallachia managed to maintain their Latin-based language, despite much Slavic influence. After centuries of peaceful co-existence, the groups fused to form the Romanians.

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From 1200BC The Bronze Dark Age – the worst disaster in ancient history, worse than the collapse of the Roman Empire.

eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_I1_Y-DNA Men belonging to I1 haplogroup all descend from a single ancestor who lived between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago. familytreedna.com/I1 people belonging to I1 hplgr all descend from a single man who lived less than 5,000 years ago. This corresponds to the arrival of the Indo-European, suggesting that a high percentage of the indigenous I1 men could possibly have been killed by the new immigrants. Understanding Haplogroups, “Deep Ancestry” 

eupedia: Neolithic & Bronze Age migrations around Europe 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_migration The earliest Historical Migrations we can reconstruct from historical sources are those of the 2nd millennium BC. The Proto-Indo-Iranians began their expansion from c. 2000 BC, the Rigveda documenting the presence of early Indo-Aryans in the Punjab from the late 2nd millennium BC, and Iranian tribes being attested in Assyrian sources as in the Iranian plateau from the 9th century BC. The Dorian invasion of Greece led to the Greek Dark Ages. Very Little is known about the period of the 12th to 9th centuries BC, but there were significant population movements throughout Anatolia and the Iranian plateau. Iranian peoples invaded the territory of modern Iran in this period, taking over the Elamite Empire. The Urartians were displaced by Armenians, and the Cimmerians and the Mushki migrated from the Caucasus into Anatolia. A Thraco-Cimmerian connection links these movements to the Proto-Celtic world of central Europe, leading to the introduction of Iron to Europe and the Celtic expansion to western Europe and the British Isles around 500 BC.

wikipedia.org/Greek_Dark_Ages#Mediterranean_warfare_and_the_Sea_Peoples >> In the Late Bronze Age, the Aegean and Anatolia were overrun by moving populations, summarized as the “Sea Peoples“, leading to the collapse of the Hittite Empire and ushering in the Iron Age. The Dorian invasion of Greece led to the Greek Dark Ages. From around 1200 BC, the palace centres and outlying settlements of the Mycenaeans’ highly organized culture began to be abandoned or destroyed, and by 1050 BC, the recognizable features of Mycenaean culture had disappeared. Many explanations attribute the fall of the Mycenaean civilization and the Bronze Age collapse to climatic or environmental catastrophe combined with an invasion by Dorians or by the Sea Peoples or the widespread availability of edged weapons of iron, but no single explanation fits the available archaeological evidence. Part of the Hittite kingdom was invaded and conquered by the so-called Sea Peoples whose origins – perhaps from different parts of the Mediterranean, such as the Black Sea, the Aegean and Anatolian regions – remain obscure. The thirteenth and twelfth-century inscriptions and carvings at Karnak and Luxor are the only sources for “Sea Peoples“, a term invented by the Egyptians themselves and recorded in the boastful accounts of Egyptian military successes. With the collapse of the palatial centres, no more monumental stone buildings were built and the practice of wall painting may have ceased; writing in the Linear B script ceased, vital trade links were lost, and towns and villages were abandoned. The population of Greece was reduced,[5] and the world of organized state armies, kings, officials, and redistributive systems disappeared. Most of the information about the period comes from burial sites and the grave goods contained within them.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_age_collapse > The Late Bronze Age collapse was a transition in the Aegean Region, Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age that historians, such as Amos Nur and Leonard R. Palmer, believe was violent, sudden and culturally disruptive. The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterised the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages.

Between 1206 and 1150 BC, the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria,[1] and the New Kingdom of Egypt in Syria and Canaan[2] interrupted trade routes and severely reduced literacy. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.[3] The gradual end of the Dark Age that ensued saw the eventual rise of settled Syro-Hittite states in Cilicia and Syria, Aramaean kingdoms of the mid-10th century BC in the Levant, and the eventual rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

Anatolia. Prior to the Bronze Age collapse, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was dominated by a number of Indo-European peoples: Luwians, Hittites, Mitanni, and Mycenaean Greeks, together with the Semitic Assyrians. From the 17th Century BC, the Mitanni formed a ruling class over the Hurrians, an ancient indigenous Caucasian people who spoke a Hurro-Urartian language isolate. Similarly, the Hittites absorbed the Hattians, a people speaking a language which may have been of the North Caucasian group. Every Anatolian site that was important during the preceding Late Bronze Age shows a destruction layer, and it appears that here civilization did not recover to the level of the Indo-European Hittites for another thousand years. Hattusas, the Hittite capital, was burned – probably by Kaskians, possibly aided by the Phrygians – abandoned, and never reoccupied. Karaoğlan was burned and the corpses left unburied. The Hittite Empire was destroyed by the Indo-European speaking Phrygians and by the Semitic speaking Aramaeans. The Trojan city of Troy was destroyed at least twice, before being abandoned until Roman times. The Phrygians had arrived probably over the Bosphorus in the 13th Century BCE, and laid waste to the Hittite Empire (already weakened by defeat at the hands of Kaska), before being checked by the Assyrians in the Early Iron Age of the 9th century BCE. Other groups of Indo-European warriors followed into the region, most prominently the Armenians, and even later, by the Cimmerians, and Scythians. The Semitic Arameans, Kartvelian speaking Colchians, and HurroUrartuans also made an appearance in parts of the region.

Cyprus. The catastrophe separates Late Cypriot II (LCII) from the LCIII period, with the sacking and burning of Enkomi, Kition, and Sinda, which may have occurred twice before those sites were abandoned. During the reign of the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV (reigned ca. 1237–1209 BCE), the island was briefly invaded by the Hittites, either to secure the copper resource or as a way of preventing piracy. Shortly afterwards, the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BCE. Some towns (Enkomi, Kition, Palaeokastro and Sinda) show traces of destruction at the end of LC IIC. Whether or not this is really an indication of a Mycenean invasion is contested. Originally, two waves of destruction, ca. 1230 BCE by the Sea Peoples and ca. 1190 BCE by Aegean refugees have been proposed.[4] The smaller settlements of Ayios Dhimitrios and Kokkinokremnos, as well as a number of other sites, were abandoned, but do not show traces of destruction. Kokkinokremos was a short-lived settlement, where various caches concealed by smiths have been found. That no one ever returned to reclaim the treasures suggests that they were killed or enslaved. Recovery only occurred in the Early Iron Age with Phoenician and Greek settlement.

Syria. Ancient Syria had been initially dominated by a number of indigenous Semitic speaking peoples; the Canaanites, Amorites, and cities of Ebla and Ugarit were prominent among these. Prior to and during the Bronze Age Collapse, Syria became a battle ground between the empires of the Hittites, Assyrians, Mitanni and Egyptians, and the coastal regions came under attack from the Sea Peoples. From the 13th Century BCE, the Arameans came to prominence in Syria, and the region outside of the Phoenician coastal areas eventually became Aramaic speaking. Syrian sites previously showed evidence of trade links with Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia), Egypt and the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age. Evidence at Ugarit shows that the destruction there occurred after the reign of Merneptah (ruled 1213–1203 BCE) and even the fall of Chancellor Bay (died 1192 BCE). The last Bronze Age king of the Semitic state of Ugarit, Ammurapi, was a contemporary of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma II. The exact dates of his reign are unknown. However, a letter by the king is preserved on one of the clay tablets found baked in the conflagration of the destruction of the city. Ammurapi stresses the seriousness of the crisis faced by many Levantine states from invasion by the advancing Sea Peoples in a dramatic response to a plea for assistance from the king of Alasiya. Ammurapi highlights the desperate situation Ugarit faced in letter RS 18.147: My father, behold, the enemy’s ships came (here); my cities(?) were burned, and they did evil things in my country. Does not my father know that all my troops and chariots(?) are in the Land of Hatti, and all my ships are in the Land of Lukka?…Thus, the country is abandoned to itself. May my father know it: the seven ships of the enemy that came here inflicted much damage upon us.[5]  Unfortunately for Ugarit, no help arrived and Ugarit was burned to the ground at the end of the Bronze Age. Its destruction levels contained Late Helladic IIIB ware, but no LH IIIC (see Mycenaean period). Therefore, the date of the destruction is important for the dating of the LH IIIC phase. Since an Egyptian sword bearing the name of pharaoh Merneptah was found in the destruction levels, 1190 BCE was taken as the date for the beginning of the LH IIIC. A cuneiform tablet found in 1986 shows that Ugarit was destroyed after the death of Merneptah. It is generally agreed that Ugarit had already been destroyed by the 8th year of Ramesses III—i. e. 1178 BCE. These letters on clay tablets found baked in the conflagration of the destruction of the city speak of attack from the sea, and a letter from Alashiya (Cyprus) speaks of cities already being destroyed from attackers who came by sea. It also speaks of the Ugarit fleet being absent, patrolling the Lycian coast. The West Semitic Arameans eventually superseded the earlier Amorites, Canaanites and people of Ugarit, to whom they were ethno-linguistically related. The Arameans came to dominate the region both politically and militarily from the mid 11th century BCE until the rise of the Neo Assyrian Empire in the late 10th Century BCE, after which the entire region fell to Assyria.

Southern Levant. Egyptian evidence shows that, from the reign of Horemheb (ruled either 1319 or 1306 to 1292 BCE), wandering Shasu were more problematic than the earlier Apiru. Ramesses II(ruled 1279–1213 BCE) campaigned against them, pursuing them as far as Moab, where he established a fortress, after the near collapse at the Battle of Kadesh. During the reign of Merneptah, the Shasu threatened the “Way of Horus” north from Gaza. Evidence shows that Deir Alla (Succoth) was destroyed after the reign of Queen Twosret (ruled 1191–1189 BCE). The destroyed site of Lachish was briefly reoccupied by squatters and an Egyptian garrison, during the reign of Ramesses III (ruled 1186–1155 BCE). All centres along a coastal route from Gaza northward were destroyed, and evidence shows Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Akko, and Jaffa were burned and not reoccupied for up to thirty years. Inland Hazor, Bethel, Beit Shemesh, Eglon, Debir, and other sites were destroyed. Refugees escaping the collapse of coastal centres may have fused with incoming nomadic and Anatolian elements to begin the growth of terraced hillside hamlets in the highlands region that was associated with the later development of the Hebrews.[6] During the reign of Rameses III Philistines were allowed to resettle the coastal strip from Gaza to Joppa, Denyen (possibly the tribe of Dan in the Bible, or more likely the people of Adana, also known as Danuna, part of the Hittite Empire) settled from Joppa to Acre, and Tjekker in Acre. These sites quickly achieved independence as the Tale of Wenamun shows.

Greece. Main article: Greek Dark Ages. None of the Mycenaean palaces of the Late Bronze Age survived (with the possible exception of the Cyclopean fortifications on the Acropolis of Athens) with destruction being heaviest at palaces and fortified sites. Up to 90% of small sites in the Peloponnese were abandoned, suggesting a major depopulation. The End Bronze Age collapse marked the start of what has been called the Greek Dark Ages, which lasted for more than 400 years. Other cities, like Athens, continued to be occupied, but with a more local sphere of influence, limited evidence of trade and an impoverished culture, from which it took centuries to recover.

Mesopotamia. The Middle Assyrian Empire controlled colonies in Anatolia, which came under attack from the Mushki. Tiglath-Pileser I (reigned 1114–1076 BCE) was able to defeat and repel these attacks. The Assyrian Empire survived intact throughout much of this period, with Assyria dominating and often ruling Babylonia directly, controlling south east and south western Anatolia, north western Iran and much of northern and central Syria and Canaan, as far as the Mediterranean and Cyprus. The Arameans and Phrygians were subjected, and Assyria and its colonies were not threatened by the Sea Peoples. However, after the death of Tiglath-Pileser I in 1076 BCE, Assyria withdrew to its natural borders in northern Mesopotamia. Assyria retained a stable monarchy, the best army in the world and an efficient civil administration, thus enabling it to survive the Bronze Age Collapse intact and, from the late 10th Century BCE, it once more began to assert itself internationally.[7] However, the situation in Babylonia was very different: after the Assyrian withdrawal, new groups of Semites, such as the Aramaeans and later Chaldeans and Suteans, spread unchecked into Babylonia, and the control by its weak kings barely extended beyond the city limits of Babylon. Babylon was sacked by the Elamites under Shutruk-Nahhunte (ca. 1185–1155 BCE), and lost control of the Diyala River valley toAssyria.

Egypt. Main article: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt. After apparently surviving for a while, the Egyptian Empire collapsed in the mid twelfth century BCE (during the reign of Ramesses VI, 1145 to 1137 BCE). Previously, theMerneptah Stele (ca. 1200 BCE) spoke of attacks from Libyans, with associated people of Ekwesh, Shekelesh, Lukka, Shardana and Tursha or Teresh possibly Troas, and a Canaanite revolt, in the cities of Ashkelon, Yenoam and the people of Israel. A second attack during the reign of Ramesses III (1186–1155 BCE) involved Peleset, Tjeker,Shardana and Denyen.

Conclusion. Robert Drews describes the collapse as “the worst disaster in ancient history, even more calamitous than the collapse of the Western Roman Empire“.[8] A number of people have spoken of the cultural memories of the disaster as stories of a “lost golden age“. Hesiod for example spoke of Ages of Gold, Silver and Bronze, separated from the modern harsh cruel world of the Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes.

Possible causes of collapse. There are various theories put forward to explain the situation of collapse, many of them compatible with each other. The Hekla 3 eruption approximately coincides with this period and, while the exact date is under considerable dispute, one group calculated the date specifically to be 1159 BC and implicated the eruption in the collapse in Egypt.Using the Palmer Drought Index for 35 Greek, Turkish, and Middle Eastern weather stations, it was shown that a drought of the kind that persisted from January 1972 would have affected all of the sites associated with the Late Bronze Age collapse.[10][11] Drought could have easily precipitated or hastened socio-economic problems and led to wars. More recently it has been shown how the diversion of mid-winter storms, from the Atlantic to north of the Pyrenees and the Alps, bringing wetter conditions to Central Europe but drought to the Eastern Mediterranean, was associated with the Late Bronze Age collapse.[12] Pollen in sediment cores from the Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee show that there was a period of severe drought at the start of the collapse.

Evidence includes the widespread findings of Naue II-type swords (coming from South-Eastern Europe) throughout the region, and Egyptian records of invading “northerners from all the lands”. The Ugarit correspondence at the time mentions invasions by tribes of the mysterious Sea Peoples, who appear to have been a disparate mix of Luwians, Greeks and Canaanites, among others. Equally, the last Greek Linear B documents in the Aegean (dating to just before the collapse) reported a large rise in piracy, slave raiding and other attacks, particularly around Anatolia. Later fortresses along the Libyan coast, constructed and maintained by the Egyptians after the reign of Ramesses II, were built to reduce raiding. This theory is strengthened by the fact that the collapse coincides with the appearance in the region of many new ethnic groups. These include Indo-European tribes, such as the Phrygians, Proto-Armenians, Medes, Persians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Scythians, as well as the Pontic speaking Colchians, HurroUrartuans and Iranian Sarmatians. These groups settled or emerged in the Caucasus, Iran and Anatolia. Thracians, Macedonians and Dorian Greeks seem to have arrived at this time – possibly from the north, usurping the earlier Greeks of Mycenae and Achaea. There also seems to have been widespread migration of Semitic peoples, such as Aramaeans, Chaldeans and Suteans – possibly from the South-East. The ultimate reasons for these migrations could include drought, developments in warfare/weaponry, earthquakes, or other natural disasters, meaning that the Migrations theory is not necessarily incompatible with the other theories mentioned here.

The main migrations seem to be the Dorians who generated a 400years Greek Dark Age and the Phrygians who distroyed the Hittite Empire, causing a 1000years Dark Age in Anatolia. According to Homer‘s Iliad, the Phrygians were close allies of the Trojans and participants in the Trojan War against the Achaeans. Phrygian power reached its peak in the late 8th century BC under another, historical king Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled Assyria and Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas was, however, also the last independent king of Phrygia before its capital Gordium was sacked by Cimmerians around 695 BC.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygians > A conventional date of c. 1180 BC is often used for the influx (traditionally from Thrace) of the pre-Phrygian Bryges orMushki, corresponding to very end of the Hittite empire. While some consider the Phrygians part of a wider “Thraco-Phrygian” group, other linguists dismiss this hypothesis since Thracian (and hence Daco-Thracian) seem to belong to theSatem group of Indo-European languages, while Phrygian shared several similarities with other Indo-European languages of the Centum group (Latin, the Anatolian languages). Classical Greek iconography identifies the Trojan Paris as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the “Liberty cap” of the American and French revolutionaries. The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language. (See Phrygian language.) Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by thePhoenicians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources. It is presently unknown whether the Phrygians were actively involved in the collapse of the Hittite capital Hattusa or whether they simply moved into the vacuum left by the collapse of Hittite hegemony. (!?!?) Though the migration theory is still defended by many modern historians, most archaeologists have abandoned the migration hypothesis regarding the origin of the Phrygians due to a lack substantial archeological evidence, with the migration theory resting only on the accounts of Herodotus and Xanthus. (!?!?) The invasion of Anatolia in the late 8th century BC to early 7th century BC by the Cimmerians was to prove fatal to independent Phrygia. Cimmerian pressure and attacks culminated in the suicide of its last king, Midas, according to legend. Gordium fell to the Cimmerians in 696 BC and was sacked and burnt, as reported much later by Herodotus. Under the proverbially rich King Croesus (reigned 560–546 BC), Phrygia remained part of the Lydian empire that extended east to theHalys River. Lydian Croesus was conquered by Cyrus in 546 BC, and Phrygia passed under Persian dominion.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygian_cap >> The Phrygian cap is a soft conical cap with the top pulled forward, associated in antiquity with the inhabitants of Illyria, a region of North West Ballkan peninsula. In early modern Europe it came to signify freedom and the pursuit of liberty, through a confusion with the pileus, the felt cap of manumitted (emancipated) slaves of ancient Rome. Accordingly, the Phrygian cap is sometimes called a liberty cap; in artistic representations it signifies freedom and the pursuit of liberty. For the ancient Greeks, the Phrygian cap indicates non-Greek “barbarism” (in the classical sense).[1] The Phrygian cap identifies Trojanssuch as Paris in vase-paintings and sculpture, and it is worn by the syncretic Persian saviour god Mithras and by the Anatolian god Attiswho were later adopted by Romans and Hellenic cultures. The twins Castor and Pollux wear a superficially similar round cap called thepileus. In the later parts of Roman history, the god Mithras — whose worship was widespread until suppressed by Christianity — was regularly portrayed as wearing a Phrygian cap, fitting with his being perceived as a Persian god who had “come out of the East”. The Macedonian, Thracian, Dacian and 12th-century Norman military helmets had a forward peaked top resembling the Phrygian cap called Phrygian type helmets.

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RO – an I2 continuity since the Ice Age.The classical Dacian Culture – a fusion between the Old Dacians & the La Tene celts

See here the present >> Distribution of European Y-DNA haplogroups by country in percentage 

B4INREMOTE-aHR0cDovLzIuYnAuYmxvZ3Nwb3QuY29tLy13R05NdFMyVjRhZy9VWGdjSzJ5ZlE2SS9BQUFBQUFBQVhuUS91NUNuMnFENjgzZy9zNjQwL0hhcGxvZ3JvdXBzX2V1cm9wZS5wbmc=

Present day haplogroup distribution in ROMANIA. (+N=0.5%,+T=0.5%,+Q=0.5%)clip_image002[7]

  • Thus most important components are:
  • 1] I = 33% original and dominant hplgr -trachians, dacians – geti, rumini;
  • 2] R1a=17.5% – ‘kurgan’, scytian, ‘slav’ component on second place;
  • 3] J= 15%   middle est, farming infusion – anatolians, ‘greeks’
  • 4] E1b1b=15%  ‘african’, ilyr – albanians, egyptians
  • 5] R1b=12% western europe hplgr – celts
Restart of Europe after Last Ice Age-I Haplogroup 25 kyr continuity-The ‘Latin’ (Indo) Europeans-Igor M. D’iakonov – Colin Renfrew-Kalevi Wiik-Gray&Atkinson  J=> 30,000 years ago (in the Middle East); E1b1b => 26,000 years ago (in southern Africa); I => 25,000 years ago (in the Balkans); R1a1 => 21,000 years ago (in southern Russia); R1b => 20,000 yrs ago (around the Caspian Sea or Central Asia); G => 17,000 years ago (between India and the Caucasus). I2 => 17,000 years ago (in the Balkans); J2 => 15,000 years ago (in northern Mesopotamia); I2b => 13,000 years ago (in Central Europe); N1c1 => 12,000 years ago (in Siberia); I2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Balkans); R1b1b2 => 10,000 years ago (north or south of the Caucasus); E-V13 => 10,000 years ago (in the Balkans); I2a2 => 7,500 years ago (in the Dinaric Alps); I1 => 5,000 years ago (in Scandinavia)

1]  Last Ice Age: The last glaciation in Europe began some 120 000 years ago, being coldest about 20‐18 000 years ago, when the ice covered the Europe to approximately 50N. Most Europe is covered by ice or tundra, the Black Sea is a lake, there is continuous land between Balkans, ‘Greek Islands’ and ‘Turkey’. 3 small pockets of human resistance remain, on of them in Balkans, with an I2 population!

Europe_During_Last_Ice_Age


2] Spread of farming in Europe – first mixtures – farming was introduced by migrations of people from Middle East with J2 haplogroup (anatolians).

Neolithic+revolution+Europe.jpg (850×599)

j2 migration

The result after this first migration is the following. The original I population in Romania melted the J2 population, present J percentage in Romania is 15%. In Europe highest J percentages can be found in Cyprus 43%, Crete 39%, Sicily 26.5%, Anatolia 33%

old_neolithic_map

From Caucaz came the caucasiansG population, the shepards, present G percentage in Romania is 5%.  G is highest in Gagauzes population 13.5%, high in Anatolia 11%, Cantabria 10.5%, Tatar 11%, Sardinia 12%, S-Italy 10.5%, Central Italy 11%, Crete 9.5%, Austria!, Tyrol, Corsica, Provence 7.5%.  Present T percentage is only 0.5% in Ro, relatively high percentages of T can be found in South Greece, Auvergne and Malta – 4.5%, South of Italy, Anatolia 2.5%, South of Spain 2%. Most of Europe is ”blue”, western europe is mostly I populations (Tardenoisioan Culture), practically no R1b in Europe, R1a present only in the North of the Black Sea (Bug-Dniester Culture – Kurgan).


late_neolithic_europe

3] 4000-3500 BCE, most of Old Europe, is pretty much I2 population with significant J mixture and some small G percentage. However ‘the afrikans’, the E-V13 populations are advancing in the West of the Balkans – future ilyrian / albanian populations, related to Egypt, to African populations. Present day percentage of E1b1 in Romania is 15%, another big wave melted in the original basic I2 population. Biggest E percentages in Europe can be found today in Kosovo 47.5%!, Central Greece 29.5%, Albania 27.5%, Bulgaria 23.5%, Montenegro 27%, Macedonia 21.5%, Bosnia 23%, Galicia 22%, Ile de France, Sicily 20.5%, 

Transylvania is the LINK between Danube Culture = Linear Pottery (W) and the famous Vinca (SW), Boian/Hamagia (SE) & Cucuteni (E) cultures!


early_bronze_age_europe

4] Present R1b percentage in Romania is  12%. The R1b epic saga begins around 2800-2500BCE. Again Transylvania is the central stage, the first celtic area and the link between Balkans (Old Europe), Western Europe still mostly I2 – the Megalithic Cultures and NE of Europe, the kurgan R1a Corded Ware Culture.  I am saying – ‘Latin languages’ have I origin, most future ‘latin’ areas, Romania, France and Spain were originally areas inhabited mainly by populations with I2 haplogroups, before the arrival of the R1b celts.  I guess that the celts were able to impose themselves in Western Europe as dominant haplogroup and not in the lower Danube area, because of the higher density in Old Europe, from here started the repopulation of Europe, here were the best living conditions for the most of the time, here was the biggest human reservoir of Europe. As Herodotus used to say, the Thracians were the biggest population of Europe, outnumbered in the world only by Indians. The biggest rivers always all over the world produced the biggest populations and the biggest cultures (Egypt/Nile, India/Ganges, Middle Asia/Euphrates, Europe/Danube).

megalithic-europe

2500-2000 – Conquest of Western Europe by R1b! R1a Corded Ware Culture in North Germany, Poland, Ukrajna and Russia. The R1b celts conquered Europe from E to W but later they migrated back East, to Transylvania, Balkans and Anatolia. Ancient Galatia (/ɡəˈlʃə/; Greek: Γαλατία) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace (cf. Tylis), who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the “Gallia” of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli (Gauls or Celts).

wiki: Celts in Transylvania > The appearance of Celts in Transylvania can be traced to the later La Tène period (c. 4th century BC).[1] Excavation of the great La Tène necropolis at Apahida, Cluj County, by S. Kovacs at the turn of the 20th century revealed the first evidence of Celtic culture in Romania. The Celts exercised politico-military rule over Transylvania between the 4th and 2nd century BC and brought with them a more advanced iron-working technology. They were also responsible for the spread of the potter’s wheel into a much wider area than the one they occupied.

Large areas of ancient Dacia populated early in the First Iron Age by Thracian people were affected by a massive migration of (R1a) Scythians moving east to west during the first half of the first millennium BC. They were followed by a second equally large wave of Celts migrating west to east.[4] Celts arrived in northwestern Transylvania in around 400–350 BC as part of their great migration eastwards.[5] When Celtic warriors first penetrated these territories, the group seem to have merged with the domestic population of early Dacians and assimilated many Hallstatt cultural traditions.[6]

The second half of the 4th century BC saw the Middle La Tène Celtic culture emerge in north-western and central Dacia, a development reflected especially in burials of the period.[1] Celtic artifacts dating to this time have been discovered at Turdaş, Haţegand Mediaş in modern day Romania. By 1976 the number of Celtic sites found in Transylvania had reached about 150, indicating a significant La Tène population surpassed only by the Dacians.[7] These sites are mostly cemeteries.[1] Archaeological investigations have highlighted several warrior graves with military equipment, suggesting that an elite Celtic military force penetrated the region. Celtic vestiges are found concentrated in the Transylvanian plateau and plain, as well as the upper Someş basin, whereas the surrounding valleys of Haţeg, Hunedoara, Făgăraş, Bârsa, Sf. Gheorghe and Ciuc have neither necropoleis nor settlements but only tombs or isolated items. This indicates that Celts occupied the territory between Mureş and Someş, west of the Apuseni Mountains, and the plains and plateau in the intra-Carpathian space along with the valley in the upper basin of Someş.[8] Nevertheless, these valleys as well as those of Banat and Maramureş have also yielded contemporary Dacian findings.[8] Of the Celtic cemeteries excavated the most important are those in Ciumeşti and Pişcolt (Satu Mare County) and Fântânele (Bistriţa-Năsăud County).[9] These contain over 150 graves compared to the average of 50–70.[10] Necropoleis have also been found at Sanislău (Satu Mare County), Curtuişeni (Bihor County), Galaţii Bistriţei (Bistriţa-Năsăud County), and Braşov (Braşov County).[11]

In Transylvania, the Celts shifted from inhumation to cremation, either through natural progression or because of Dacian influence.[5] Almost without exception, the necropoleis so far studied are bi-ritual, although cremation appears to be more prevalent than inhumation.[14] The Celts in Dacia certainly cremated their dead from the second La Tène period onwards[15] but Celtic inhumations appear no older than pit-grave cremations in any of the cemeteries.[16] It is impossible to say whether the Celts turned away from the practice of cremation as the Scythians had.[15] Although less frequent, inhumation still occurred as a constant practice even during the final stage of Celtic inhabitation of this territory.[16] Celtic settlements had a rural character with such sites found in Mediaș, Moreşti, (Mureş County) and Ciumeşti.

Expansion of Celtic groups in the area may be related to their invasion of the Balkans around 335 BC, when a massive colonization of the Tisa plain and theTransylvanian Plateau occurred following the death of Lysimachus. However, the eastward movement of the Celts into Transylvania used a different route from the one taken by the hordes that attacked the Balkans. [17]Celts did not occupy all intra-Carpathian areas of Transylvania, stopping short of the Maramureş Depression for instance, where excavations have uncovered Dacian fortifications from the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.[18] As regards Celtic influence on local Daco-Getic culture, Vasile Pârvan has stated that the latter is wholly indebted to Celtic traditions and that the “La Tene-ization” of these northern Tracians was a cultural phenomenon primarily due to the Celtic population who settled the area. [2]

Archaeological sites of the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC reveal a pattern of co-existence and fusion between the bearers of La Tène culture and the indigenous Dacians. Domestic dwellings exhibit a mixture of Celtic and Dacian pottery while several Celtic graves contain Dacian type vessels.[1] At Celtic sites in Dacia, finds show that the native population imitated Celtic art forms that they admired, but remained firmly and fundamentally Dacian in their culture.[19] Dacian archaeological finds in the Transylvania area increase in number from the middle of the 2nd century BC.

During the first half of the 2nd century BC, Pompeius Trogus writes in his Historiae Philippicae of a Dacian king, Oroles, who fought against Celtic incursions.[20] Oroles is recorded as resisting the intrusion of the Bastarnae, a people now generally considered to be of Germanic origin but who were in fact Celto-Germanic and, according to Livy, spoke a Celtic language.[21]The Bastarnae moved from Silesia into what is now central and northern Moldavia. Pompeius Trogus along with Justin also record the rise in Dacian authority prior to 168 BC under the leadership of King Rubobostes.[22][20][23] Around 150 BC, La Tène material disappears from the area concurrent with ancient writings which mention the rise of Dacian authority. This ended Celtic domination and it is possible that the Celts were forced out of Dacia. On the other hand, some scholars have posited that the Transylvanian Celts remained but merged with the local culture and thereafter ceased to be distinctive.[1][19] The boundary between the Celts and Dacians near the River Tisa is depicted in 2nd century BC pottery found at Pecica in Arad County, a prosperous trading center at the confluence of the two peoples.[24]

A classic period of Geto-Dacian La Tène culture began in the 1st century BC centered around the city of Sarmizegetusa Regia in south-western Transylvania.[25] Dacian king Burebista defeated the Celtic Boii and Taurisci tribes between 60–59 BC.[26] However, some archaeological finds in Dacian settlements and fortifications feature imported Celtic vessels and others made by Dacian potters imitating Celtic prototypes. These discoveries in sites from regions north and west of Transylvania show that relations between the Dacians and the Celts continued in the period 1st century BC-1st century AD. During Burebista’s time the Dacians became closer to the remaining Celtic populations than they had been when the Celts ruled Transylvania. Evidence from the earlier period shows Celtic burials and settlements with only occasional Dacian elements while Dacian settlements with Celtic finds are infrequent. This situation reversed after Burebista’s conquest when a distinctive hybrid Celtic-Dacian culture emerged on the Hungarian plain and in the Slovakian regions. Most of the Celts were melted into the Geto-Dacian population and contributed to Dacian cultural development. These Celtic tribes, who were skilled in iron exploitation and processing, also introduced the potter’s wheel to the area, thereby contributing to acceleration of the development of Dacia.[20] By this time, prosperous Celtic communities had spread over the whole territory of modern Romania.

So original ‘Dacian’ populations melted the R1b invaders, and the fusion between the old Dacians and the La Tene celts produced the main classical Dacian Culture starting with the Dacian Empire of Burebista than finishing with the Dacian kingdom conquered by the Roman Empire / Trajan.

It is interesting to see in 800AD a situation in Europe pretty much replicating much of situation we can see above in Europe, in the time of Burebista, 900 years before Charlemagne. The Carolingian Empire goes on the footsteps of the old Celtic territories, the ‘Bulgarian Vlah’ Empire covers the Dacian+Thracian area, while the Southern Slavs occupy the Ilyrian area.

So we could say that in Romania we have a 10k or 7.000years I continuity, with a main basic I2 population which melted wave after wave, J, E, R1b and R1a populations.  


5] The absorption of R1a populations was done in many thousands of year, there were many many waves coming over Romania from the East, most of them along the Black Sea shores. Present day R1a percentage in Romania is 17.5%. First wave was the Kurgan invasion that probably distroyed the Cucuteni Culture.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurgan_hypothesis#Kurgan_culture > Kurgan IV or Pit Grave culture, first half of the 3rd millennium BC, encompassing the entire steppe region from the Ural to Romania. There were three successive proposed “waves” of expansion:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usatovo_culture > The Usatovo culture, 3500—3000 BC, is an archaeological culture facing the Black Sea between the mouths of the Bug River and the Danube in present-day Romania, Moldavia, and southern Ukraine. It is seen as a hybrid, with roots in both the Cernavodă and the Tripolye cultures, overlain by an intrusive steppe-derived element of the presumably Indo-European-speaking Kurgan culture.

Than of course followed the scytians/sarmatians who were mentioned as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes starting with the 7th century BC up until the 4th century AD. And finally the Slaves  From the early 6th century AD.

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La Seimeni case circulare de 300mp si un inel fabulos, pe autostrada Transilvania un oras de 100ha… Se dezvaluie civilizatii mai vechi decit piramidele, Old Europe -5000BC

The Vinca pottery is almost indistinguishable from Ubaid Sumerian (Ubaid is the oldest, initial phase o the Sumerian material culture, corresponding temporarily with the end of Vinca-Turdas culture). Read more.  

>> 373 google earth photos from Dobrogea >> Seimeni, Hamangia, La Tene, Axiopolis – a 7000 year history … 200 de locuinte circulare de 300mp, cea mai mare concentrare de locuinte circulare cu diametru de peste 20m din Europa ..

sei2

sei3sei4sei5sei1seimeni hamangia

Descoperire senzațională într-unul din misterioasele discuri uriașe de la Seimeni: un inel din bronz care conține simboluri prezente și în cultura Turdaș Vincha!!! Povestea începe însă în anul 2010 când Cristian Pintilie detectează prin satelit un complex uriaș de discuri ascunse în pământ, la Seimeni, în județul Constanța. Ceea ce este cert e faptul că, deși au mai fost discuții între arheologi pe acest subiect, niciun specialist nu s-a obosit să dea o fugă până acolo să vadă despre ce este vorba. A făcut-o însă Cristian Pintilie duminica trecută iar descoperirile lui vor scrie istorie, cu siguranță! Plecat cu familia în zona Seimeni, a hotărât să facă și o scurtă investigație în aceste discuri neluate în seamă de lumea științifică și surpriză: oriunde a săpat, la 10-15 cm adâncime, a descoperit ceramică străveche, vetre de foc, amfore, bucăți de metal cu aspect de topitură – posibil din staniu sau cositor… Și cum nimic nu este întâmplător, primul lucru pe care l-a scos la lumină, la prima detecție cu aparatul (ca și cum l-ar fi așteptat de milenii pe Cristian!), a fost un inel sigilar din bronz care are incizate două simboluri identice cu semne din cultura Turdaș-Vincha, o cultură veche de 7.500 de ani. Mai mult decât atât, unul dintre simboluri seamănă bine și cu un simbol prezent pe plăcuțele de la Tărtăria.

Descoperirea este una excepțională pentru că ne vorbește despre o continuitate a simbolurilor pe o perioadă de mii de ani. Dincolo de toate, locul în sine se arată a fi unul excepțional pentru că dacă acest arheolog amator, care și-a obținut autorizația de detecție acum trei luni (!!!), a reușit ca în doar  câteva ore dintr-o după masă de duminică să descopere așa ceva, ceea ce s-ar putea descoperi acolo în urma unei investigații arheologice sistematice, de anvergură, ar putea să aducă la lumină lucruri capabile să schimbe perspectiva istorică asupra unei anumite perioade sau a unui loc, sau cel puțin să o îmbogățească cu noi informații.

Seimeni-1-300x240Seimeniseimeni turdassites.google.com/site/seimenisatdinneolitic/ >  ”În interiorul unei locuinţe circulare amplasată în prima zonă, la o adâncime de 25-30 cm, am descoperit un inel sigilar aflat într-o stare perfectă de conservare. Inelul are diametrul de 20 mm iar sigiliul are forma octogonală cu laturile de 3 şi 6 mm, dispuse alternativ. Pe sigiliu sunt gravate imagini ideografice dintre care două sunt identice cu semnele Vinca-Turdaş (unul se regăseşte pe plăcuţa circulară descoperită la Tărtăria în 1961 de cercetătorul clujean Nicolae Vlassa), iar al treilea este un simbol religios vechi de 12.000 de ani – bucraniul. Inelul se află într-o stare foarte bună de conservare datorită faptului că, prin baterea bronzului, se obţine la exterior un strat dur, similar celui obţinut prin extrudare, care nu corodează uşor. În plus, solul nisipos de pe dealul Seimeni este foarte permeabil, nereţinând umezeala. Cuprul din compoziţia bronzului nu reacţionează cu apa, dar reacţionează încet cu aerul atmosferic. În urma acestei reacții, pe suprafața cuprului se formează un strat de cupru oxidat cu nuanţe verzui . În contrast cu oxidarea fierului la aer umed, acest strat de oxid se oprește din coroziune. Din această cauză, obiectele din bronz care au stat mult în pământ au acea culoare “brun antic”. În perimetrul aşezării de la Seimeni, în interiorul locuinţelor circilare semi-îngropate, am descoperit fragmente din materiile prime necesare confecţionării bronzului antic. Movila existentă pe dealul de la Seimeni, în cel mai înalt punct, este alcătuită, în principal, din zgură, iar aceste dovezi arheologice sugerează faptul că s-au produs cantităţi foarte mari de bronz.”

seimeni case circularetartaria turdas
 
A fost descoperit cel mai vechi oraş din Transilvania: “Datează de dinainte de Piramide!”“De ce spun ca e primul oras din Transilvania, ca sa nu spun cel putin din sud – estul Europei: pentru ca am descoperit un sistem de fortificatie, de imprejmuire, compus din 11 palisade si santuri succesive, pe o profuzime de 200 de metri. Am descoperit doua porti de intrare in sistemul de fortificatie, cu turnuri, totul din lemn. Acest sistem, de o asa de mare dimensiune, nu s-a putut cerceta in Europa fiindca costa foarte mult. Am surprins aceste palisade, santuri, turnuri, care ocroteau un nucleu care, din punctul meu de vedere, in stadiul initial avea cam 100 de hectare imprejmuit. Faptul ca este consacrat dupa toate regulile vedem din faptul ca, la distante de aproximativ 200 de metri, in interiorul primei sau celei de-a doua fortificatii este pus cate un sacrificat. Am gasit vreo cinci (schelete – n.r.). Ceea este curios este ca nici unul nu e in aceeasi pozitie, deci e clar ca e sacrificiu, nu este o inmormantare. I-au sacrificat in diverse ritualuri. Sunt pusi fie pe burta cu mainile si picioarele legate, fie pe spate cu mainile si picioarele legate, fie cu capul taiat si pus pe piept”, a declarat directorul muzeului Brukenthal.

“Trebuie sa ne gandim la un mare centru regional al acelui moment. Am gasit explicatia asupra numarului mare de vase si statuete de lut descoperite aici. Am gasit 60 de cuptoare pentru arderea obiectelor de mici dimensiuni si singura concluzie care se poate trage este ca aici se facea plastica de statuete, idolii, pentru o tara. si aceasta mare asezare sacra cu caracter urban livra aceste piese, consacrate deja, spre comunitati. E singura asezare din toate cele cercetate pana acum din Europa neolitica care are un numar asa mare de cuptoare. (…) Putem argumenta ideea ca suntem in fata unei asezari protourbane aidoma marilor asezari din Orient, o asezare care avea sigur regi, datorita statuilor pe tron”, a explicat Sabin Luca.

“Sapaturile din ultimul an si jumatate au creat un nou muzeu, avem deja mii de piese intregi restaurate, extrem de reprezentative, unicat, de la ceramica la metal, de la piatra la os. La cercetarea aceasta se va mai lucra patru-cinci ani pana cand vom tipari volumele. (…) Pana acum s-a cercetat un esantion ceramic de doi-trei la suta si s-a cercetat cam trei-patru la suta din oase. La cea mai mare cercetare din Europa nu poti sa estimezi nimic, decat ca la final vom raporta cel mai mare esantion ceramic cercetat in Europa, cel mai mare esantion osteologic cercetat in Europa, cel mai mare, pentru ca asta a fost norocul nostru”, a adaugat Sabin Luca.

In situl de la Turdas au fost descoperite sase orizonturi diferite, datate in neoliticul timpuriu, eneoliticul timpuriu si dezvoltat, perioada dacica si cea medievala, in jurul secolului XII.

Sabin Luca, directorul Muzeului Brukenthal din Sibiu, intenţionează să realizeze la Tărtăria cel mai modern complex arheologic din România, pe o suprafaţă de 2,5 hectare! Acesta ar urma să aibă locuri de cazare pentru arheologi, spaţii speciale pentru cercetarea şi restaurarea obiectelor găsite, dar şi locuinţe neolitice reconstituite în acre, unde să poată fi cazaţi turiştii care vizitează arheoparcul. Tărtăria este un sit extraordinar de important, pentru că acolo s-au descoperit, în 1961, trei tăbliţe din lut cu pictograme vechi de aproximativ 7.000 de ani. S-a ajuns la concluzia că acele semne reprezintă prima formă de scriere din lume. Împotriva acestei concluzii s-au ridicat însă numeroşi arheologi, inclusiv Sabin Luca, toţi susţinând că în epoca pietrei nu putea exista scriere, iar semnele acelea ar fi ornamente. Tot pe traseul autostrăzii, arheologii conduşi de Luca au cercetat, la Miercurea Sibiului, o altă aşezare din epoca pietrei, în care au găsit un fragment de ceramică inscripţionat cu o scriere cuneiformă veche de… 8.000 de ani!

Din acel moment, viziunea directorului de la Brukenthal despre neolitic s-a schimbat – “Eu sunt zguduit. Am publicat volume internaţionale cu semne şi simboluri, căutând să destructurez ideea după care în neolitic exista scriere. În cazul acesta nu e ornament… Este o descoperire deosebită”, spunea Luca, uluit de acea scriere.

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