en.wikipedia.org/Ancient_Egyptian_race_controversy In 1975, the mummy of Ramesses II was taken to France for preservation. Professor Pierre-Fernand Ceccaldi, the chief forensic scientist at the Criminal Identification Laboratory of Paris. determined that: “the hair of Ramses II, astonishingly preserved, showed complementary data about pigmentation: he was a fair-skinned person with Red hair – cymnotriche leucoderma.”
Forensic artists and physical anthropologists from Egypt, France, and the United States independently created busts of Tutankhamun, using a CT-scan of the skull. Although modern technology can reconstruct Tutankhamun’s facial structure with a high degree of accuracy, determining his skin tone and eye color is impossible. The cranial cavity indicated an African, while the nose opening suggested narrow nostrils, which is usually considered to be a European characteristic.
The race and skin color of Cleopatra, has also caused frequent debate. Scholars generally identify Cleopatra as of Greek and Persian ancestry, based on fact that her Greek Macedonian family had intermingled with the Persian aristocracy of the time.
“iGENEA was able to reconstruct the Y-DNA profile of Tutankhamun, his father Akhenaten and his grandfather Amenhotep III with the help of a recording of the Discovery Channel. The astonishing result is that Tutankhamun belongs to the haplogroup R1b1a2, which more than 50% of all men in Western Europe belong to.”
eupedia.com/origins_haplogroups_europe Following the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12,000 years ago, European hunter-gatherers recolonised the continent from the Ice Age refugia in southern Europe. The vast majority of Mesolithic Europeans would have belonged to Y-haplogroup I. This included I*, pre-I1, I1, I2*, I2a*, I2a2, but the most widespread appears to have been I2a1, which was found in most parts of Europe. Northeast Europeans would have belonged mostly to haplogroup R1a.
ancient-black-civilizations Archaeologist Manfred Bietak conducted extensive research on ancient Greek civilizations and their connections to ancient Egypt. Bietak unearthed evidence from artwork as early as 7000 B.C. that depicts the early people inhabiting Greece were of African descent. The Minoan culture of Ancient Greece reached its peak at about 1600 B.C. They were known for their vibrant cities, opulent palaces and established trade connections. Minoan artwork is recognized as a major era of visual achievement in art history. Pottery, sculptures and frescoes from the Minoan Bronze age grace museum displays all over the world. Palace ruins indicate remnants of paved roads and piped water systems.
Many scholars have concluded that the founders of the first Mesopotamian civilization were Black Sumerians. Mesopotamia was the Biblical land of Shinar (Sumer), which sprung up around 3000 B.C. After deciphering the cuneiform script and researching ancient Mesopotamia for many years Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895) discovered that the founders of the civilization were of Kushite (Cushite) origin. He made it clear that the Semitic speakers of Akkad and the non-Semitic speakers of Sumer were both Black people who called themselves sag-gig-ga or “Black Heads.”
John Baldwin wrote in his book “PreHistoric Nations” (1869): “The early colonists of Babylonia were of the same race as the inhabitants of the Upper Nile.” This was corroborated by other scholars including, Chandra Chakaberty, who asserted in his book “A Study in Hindu Social Polity” that “based on the statuaries and steles of Babylonia, the Sumerians were “of dark complexion – chocolate colour, short stature, but of sturdy frame, oval face, stout nose, straight hair, full head; they typically resembled the Dravidians, not only in cranium, but almost in all the details.”
www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_E1b1b_Y-DNA The Sahara changed many times from a lush green place to a hot and arid desert in the last 20,000 years. It was as arid as today at the end of the last Ice Age 13,000 years ago, then the warming climate brought tropical monsoons again from 10,000 to 7,000 years before present. The desertification taking place today started around 6,200 years ago. This series of severe transformations of their environment surely had a tremendous effect on the indigenous (E1b1b) people, causing populations booms during the green millennia following the Last Glacial Maximum, then again during the Neolithic period, and prompting migrations to milder climes once the rain had gone. The region most affected by the desertification would have been around modern Libya. The northern Maghreb enjoys the protection of the mountains that stopped the advance of the desert. Egypt had the Nile and its delta. As a result, if desertification did prompt North Africans to cross the Mediterranean at one time or another, they would most probably have crossed to Sicily first.
A strong argument in favour of E1b1b crossing directly from North Africa to southern Italy is that South Italians have more African admixture than people in the Balkans, Greece or Anatolia. This is true of the Northwest African admixture and theEast African (Red sea) admixture. Another argument is that E1b1b has never been found among the dozens of Neolithic Y-DNA samples in the Balkans or Central Europe.
The Neoltihic farmers who migrated from the Levant to the Balkans would have brought mostly Southwest Asian admixture and apparently exclusively Y-haplogroup G2a. Many Neolithic sites yielded an occasional “outsider” to the G2a majority, but these were lineages (C1a2, F, I1, I2) that are thought to belong to assimilated (or enslaved) Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. That was very probably the case with E-V13 in Catalonia too.
The hypothesis of E1b1b settling in Mediterranean Europe since the Late Paleolithic or Mesolithic would also explain:
1)…why South Italians and Iberians are remarkably dolichocephalic – long-headed like North Africans, while North Italians, who are more of Italo-Celtic descent are quite brachycephalic – broad-headed like Central Europeans, Eastern Europeans and West Asians. A direct migration from North Africa to South Italy would have resulted not only in higher African admixture in South Italians, but also in a similar morphology. The Greeks are intermediary because they would have been blended with broad-headed West Asian Neolithic farmers G2a and later Bronze Age invaders (Indo-European R1a and R1b, but also Anatolian J2). Further north in the Balkans, the Mediterranean dolicocephalic type were supplanted by the Eastern European, Central Asian and West Asian brachycephalic type over time due to the numerous migrations to the region.
2)…the almost complete absence of other Paleolithic lineage (notably I2) from southern and central Italy, except in Sardinia, which was presumably not settled by Paleolithic North Africans due to its distance from the nearest coast. It would rather have been settled through Corsica from North Italy by Central European hunter-gatherers (I2a1). The modern Sardinian population distinguishes itself by its higher frequency of non-Mediterranean Mesolithic ancestry (such as WHG) but the nearly complete absence of East African admixture. Sardinia is also the only region of Italy which almost doesn’t have any E-V13.
Nowadays E1b1b is the only Mediterranean haplogroup consistently found throughout Europe, even in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Baltic countries, which are conspicuous by the absence of other Neolithic haplogroups like G2a (bar the Indo-European G2a3b1), J1 and T (except in Estonia). However, since G2a is the only lineage that was consistently found in all Neolithic sites tested to date in Europe, the absence of Neolithic G2a lineages from Scandinavia and the Baltic implies that no Neolithic lineage survives there, and consequently E1b1b (mostly E-V13) does not date from the Neolithic in the region. It could easily have been brought by the Indo-European invasions during the Bronze Age, as a minority lineage picked up in Southeast Europe by the R1b tribes before they made their way to Central Europe and eventually Scandinavia. At present the most consistent explanation is that E-M78 was indigenous to southern Europe in the Mesolithic, and was assimilated by G2a farmers, then by R1b Indo-Europeans. There is in fact a very low diversity among E-V13 in central and north-east Europe, which is consistent with a relatively recent (Bronze to Iron Age) dispersal from a common source.
E-M81 in Iberia: Neolithic or Phoenician? Two alternative time frames can be envisaged for the entry of E-M81 to Iberia. The first possibility is that E-M81 was assimilated by North African herders during the Neolithic. Cattle were probably domesticated in West Asia around 8,500 BCE by R1b tribes. The southern branch, R1b-V88 propagated from the Fertile Crescent into Egypt and across North Africa. Archeology shows that cattle herders reached Lybia by 5,500 BCE and Algeria by 4,500 BCE. Goats were domesticate around the same time as cattle in West Asia, but probably by carriers of haplogroup J1 and T1a. Various groups would have spread in all directions from the Near East, including to North Africa. Thus, at least two separate groups of Neolithic herders would have arrived in the Maghreb and mixed with local E1b1b populations. This new lifestyle could have been the factor that prompted the sudden expansion of E-M81 lineages. The resulting population increase (a mix of R1b, J1 & E-M81) would have encouraged goat and cattle herders to seek new pastures in Iberia, which they could have done sometime between 4,000 and 3,000 BCE.
Cumulatively, some E-M81 lineages could have settled in Iberia when the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians were actively trading between both sides of the West Mediterranean, a period that spans one full millennium (c. 1200-146 BCE). The Phoenicians were known to trade as far north as the British Isles, and may have had trading posts along the coast of Portugal, Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria, which would have brought a mixture of Near Eastern (J1, J2, E-M34, T, G2a) and Berber (E-M84, R1b-V88) lineages to the region, as is observed today.
The Phoenicians possessed a variety of paternal lineages reflecting the complex ancient history of the Middle East. One of them was E-M34, which makes up about 15% of modern Lebanese Y-DNA, but was probably a higher before the Greek, Roman, Arabic, Byzantine, medieval crusader and Ottoman occupations. E-M34 is the main Middle Eastern variety of E1b1b and is thought to have arrived with the Proto-Semitic people in the Late Copper to Early Bronze Age. The Phoenicians would have spread E-M34 to Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Ibiza and southern Iberia.
E-M78 is the most common variety of haplogroup E among Europeans and Near Easterners. E-M78 is divided into 4 main branches : E1b1b1a1 (E-V12), E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), E1b1b1a3 (E-V22) and E1b1b1a4 (E-V65), each subdivided in further subclades.
E-V13 is clearly linked to the Thessalian Neolithic and its offshoots, such as the Linear Pottery (LBK) culture. It was also part of the Cardium Pottery Culture, as attested by the 7000-year-old E-V13 sample from Catalonia, which belonged to that culture. E-V13 also seems to have spread the Neolithic to the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Iran, but could have bypassed Syria, where it isn’t found, except in Assyria and Kurdistan.
The Kurds have the highest percentage of E-V13 in the Middle East. They also have have high percentages of I2a1b and R1a, which makes me think that they could be descended from the Thracians or a relative tribe from the region of Romania or Bulgaria. Or at least it would mean that a Thracian-related tribe settled in what is now Kurdistan, probably long before the actual Kurds arrived. Maybe the Cimmerians are the source they invaded that (Kurd) area of the mid east around 2,600-2,800ybp according to Herodotus they lived around Ukriane and Russia north of the black sea were I2a1b is pretty popular. Cimmerians appeared like an Iranian group which showed strong connections to Thracians. Almost like the bridge between Iranians and Thracians.
The very even dispersal show an ancient origin. Looks like they were involved in farming from the beginning. E-V13, G2a and I2a are European groups. E-V13 IS European because that particular mutation took place in southeastern Europe, but it’s parent E-M78 probably originated somewhere near the Egyptian/Sudan frontier and spread across much of Libya, Egypt, Somalia, Ethiopia. E-V13 is European, with parent from North East Africa. G2a (the one observed in Europe) is European parent from Caucaz. I2a is European with parent I2 the most European haplogrouop in the world. Germanic and Celtic R1b is European with parent from Anatolia and great parent from Central Asia! E-V13 is massively “European” in its distribution, some sub clade of it made it all the way into the western Mediterranean with the Neolithic. It is also clear from many papers that the extremely high Balkan frequencies stem from a founder effect and then a large expansion in relatively more recent times.
Gypsies are not big in E-V13, some have it due to drift. Bulgarians, Serbs, Macedonians and Albanians slept with Gypsy women and majority of the children 99+ were raised as Gypsies. E-V13 has nothing to do with Egypt itself, its father M78 has. Gypsies are mostly H1a the second biggest being I1 (a mystery who have sex with them to give it to them, maybe Hungarians and Austrians), I2a, J2a4b and E-V13. Just like between 0.5-2% of the Eastern European have Gypsy H, just like 30-40% of the Gypsies have European I1, I2a and E-V13. Also majority of Gypsies in the Balkan come from Central and West Europe, because they were used as slaves there and the Ottomans treated them better. They are from India, then they went to Iran, then some went to Egypt yes.
E-V22 is found primarily in western Ethiopia, northern Egypt and in the southern Levant. In Europe it is therefore associated with the Phoenicians and the Jews. The Phoenicians could have disseminated E-V22 to Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain and the Maghreb, and the Jews to Greece and mainland Italy and Spain. However, V22 might have been found among Mesolithic South Europeans like V13.
E-V12 is the most common subclade of M78 in southern Egypt – over 40% of the population, while its V32 subclade is the dominant paternal lineage in Somalia, southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. The moderate presence of V12* in the Near East and across Europe (except Nordic countries) indicates that it could have been a minor Mesolithic South European lineage accompanying E-V13. Its V32 subclade has not been found outside Northeast Africa.
E-V65 is found chiefly in North Africa, with a maximum frequency (20-30%) observed in Lybia, Tunisia and northern Morocco.
dienekes.blogspot.ro Expansion of E-V13 explained E-V13 is the main European clade of haplogroup E. It has been variously interpreted as a signature of early Balkan Bronze Age, or Mesolithic, the Greek colonization of Southern Italy, Greek ancestry in some Pakistanis, or Roman soldiers of Balkan origin in Britain. A proper understanding of its age would help resolve the problem of its origins. The age and distribution of E-V13 chromosomes suggest that expansions of the Greek world in the Bronze and later ages were the major causes of its diffusion.
The acclaimed theoretical physicist Albert Einstein is presumed to have belonged to Y-haplogroup E-Z830 based on the results from a patrilineal descendant of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein, Albert Einstein’s great-grand-father. Approximately 20% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup E1b1b.
Ronny Decorte, a geneticist from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, tested relatives of Adolf Hitler and determined that the Fürher belonged to haplogroup E1b1b. Ironically this haplogroup thought to be at the origin of Afro-Asiatic languages, which includes the Semitic languages and peoples that Hitler despised so much.
Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973), the 36th President of the United States, was identified as a member of haplogroup E1b1b1 through the Johnson/Johnston/Johnstone DNA Surname Project.
- J => 30,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
- R => 28,000 years ago (in the Central Asia)
- E1b1b => 26,000 years ago (in Northeast Africa)
- I => 25,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
- J1 => 20,000 years ago (in the Taurus/Zagros mountains)
- J2 => 19,000 years ago (in northern Mesopotamia)
- E-M78 => 18,000 years ago (in north-eastern Africa)
- R1b => 18,000 years ago (around the Caspian Sea or Central Asia)
- R1a => 17,000 years ago (in southern Russia)
- G => 17,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
- I2 => 17,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
- E-V13 => 15,000 years ago (in the southern Levant or North Africa)
- I2b => 13,000 years ago (in Central Europe)
- N1c1 => 12,000 years ago (in Siberia)
- E-M81 => 11,000 years ago (in Northwest Africa)
- I2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
- G2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Levant or Anatolia)
- R1b1b2 => 10,000 years ago (north or south of the Caucasus)
- I2b1 => 9,000 years ago (in Germany)
- I2a1 => 8,000 years ago (in Southwest Europe)
- I2a2 => 7,500 years ago (in Southeast Europe)
- I1 => 5,000 years ago (in Scandinavia)
- R1b-L21 => 4,000 years ago (in Central or Eastern Europe)
- R1b-S28 => 3,500 years ago (around the Alps)
- R1b-S21 => 3,000 years ago (in Frisia or Central Europe)